Test Bank Statistics and Data Analysis for Social Science 2nd Edition by Eric Jon Krieg

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Test Bank Statistics and Data Analysis for Social Science 2nd Edition by Eric Jon Krieg

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Test Bank Statistics and Data Analysis for Social Science 2nd Edition by Eric Jon Krieg

Chapter 1: Concepts, Variables, and Measurement

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Anomie is an example of a ______.
  2. statistic
  3. sociological concept
  4. level of measurement
  5. unit of analysis

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Emile Durkheim, Structural Strain, Suicide, and Anomie

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A(n) ______ is defined as anything that may vary from one case to the next.
  2. variable
  3. concept
  4. anomaly
  5. level of measurement

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptual Definitions of Variables

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A logical set of characteristics for a variable ______.
  2. concepts
  3. variables
  4. attributes
  5. units of analysis

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptual Definitions of Variables

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Suppose a researcher asks the following question on a survey, choose one, male or female, this is an example of a(n) ______ variable.
  2. nominal
  3. ordinal
  4. interval/ratio
  5. demography

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Levels of Measurement

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The statement, I like chocolate a lot, is an example of a(n) ______ variable.
  2. nominal
  3. ordinal
  4. interval/ratio
  5. frequency

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Levels of Measurement

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ is a term used to analyze how social class affects people’s ability to access resources.
  2. Operationalization
  3. Standardization
  4. Social resources
  5. Life chances

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Introduction

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The process of defining what we mean by a concept is called ______.
  2. conceptualization
  3. operationalization
  4. alienation
  5. variability

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Operational Definitions of Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The process of developing a variable that measures a concept is called ______.
  2. conceptualization
  3. operationalization
  4. alienation
  5. variability

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Operational Definitions of Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A variable is not correctly operationalized if it is not considered ______.
  2. mutually exclusive
  3. collectively exhaustive
  4. independent
  5. dependent

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Operational Definitions of Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. When the attributes of a variable include every possible response that attributes are said to be ______.
  2. mutually exclusive
  3. conceptualized
  4. collectively exhaustive
  5. dependent

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Operational Definitions of Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Attributes are ______ when the categories do not overlap.
  2. mutually exclusive
  3. conceptualized
  4. collectively exhaustive
  5. dependent

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Operational Definitions of Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Race is measured at the ______ level of measurement.
  2. nominal
  3. ordinal
  4. interval/ratio
  5. organizational

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Individual Data

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Years of education is measured at the ______ level of measurement.
  2. nominal
  3. ordinal
  4. interval/ratio
  5. organizational

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Individual Data

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The categories used in the General Social Survey for the variables’ highest degree include Lt. High School, High School, Junior College, Bachelor, Graduate, DK, NA. They are considered to be ______ level of measurement.
  2. nominal
  3. ordinal
  4. interval
  5. ratio

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Individual Data

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is a nominal variable?
  2. years of education
  3. political party affiliation
  4. highest degree earned
  5. age

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Individual Data

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Pie charts are common ways of presenting data for ______.
  2. nominal variables
  3. ordinal variables
  4. interval/ratio variables
  5. independent variables

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Graphical Representation of Data (What Data “Look” Like)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Bar charts are common ways of presenting data for ______.
  2. nominal variables
  3. ordinal variables
  4. interval/ratio variables
  5. independent variables

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Graphical Representation of Data (What Data “Look” Like)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which type of chart is used to represent interval/ratio data?
  2. pie charts
  3. bar charts
  4. histograms
  5. frequency charts

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Graphical Representation of Data (What Data “Look” Like)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is most appropriate to present data on years of education?
  2. pie charts
  3. bar charts
  4. histograms
  5. frequency charts

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Graphical Representation of Data (What Data “Look” Like)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ refers to the ability of a measure to accurately reflect the concept it is intended to measure.
  2. Validity
  3. Reliability
  4. Conceptualization
  5. Operationalization

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ecological Data

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

Multiple Response

 

  1. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following are considered levels of measurement?
  2. nominal
  3. ordinal
  4. cardinal
  5. interval/ratio

Ans: A, B, D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Levels of Measurement

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following are charts used in statistics?
  2. pie chart
  3. bar chart
  4. histogram
  5. statistical charts

Ans: A, B, C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Graphical Representation of Data (What Data “Look” Like)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY. Two components that must be met for statistical analysis to be met to accurately measure outcome are ______.
  2. customization
  3. validity
  4. operationalization
  5. reliability

Ans: B, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Validity and Reliability

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY. Measurement can be done at the following levels: ______.
  2. nominal
  3. ordinal
  4. interval/ratio
  5. frequency

Ans: A, B, C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Chapter Summary

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following are considered to be ordinal variables?
  2. how often do you study (some, non, a lot)
  3. the frequency of skipping class (sometimes, never, often)
  4. someone’s age (0–5, 5–10, 10–15, etc.)
  5. number of classes skipped (1, 2, 3, etc.)

Ans: A, B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ecological Data

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

True/False

 

  1. In the following statement, education is the independent variable: “If education increases, then income increases.”

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Independent and Dependent Variables

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Conceptualization is the process of defining what we mean by a concept.

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Operational Definitions of Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Attributes are collectively exhaustive when the attributes do not overlap.

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Operational Definitions of Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Ordinal variables have attributes based on relative numeric values.

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Measurement

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Interval/ratio is considered the highest level of measurement.

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Measurement

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Pie charts should be used to present data for nominal or ordinal variables.

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Graphical Representation of Data (What Data “Look” Like)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Histograms are used to display data for nominal variables.

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Graphical Representation of Data (What Data “Look” Like)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Bar charts are only used for interval/ratio variables.

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Graphical Representation of Data (What Data “Look” Like)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Survey questions are not reliable if respondents interpret the questions in different ways.

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Validity and Reliability

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. When working with data that represent individuals, you do not need to be concerned with individualistic fallacy.

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ecological Data

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

Short Answer

 

  1. Explain Kuhn’s process of accumulating knowledge.

Ans: Kuhn argues that people tend to think of science as a slow accumulation of knowledge over time. This gradual accumulation of knowledge is incorporated into increasingly sophisticated models of how the world works that are then used to pursue a more informed knowledge of reality.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Scientific Revolutions

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Discuss two factors that must be considered when operationalizing a variable.

Ans: Variables must be collectively exhaustive--attributes include every possible response--and mutually exclusive--each case can be applied to only one attribute of a variable.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Operational Definitions of Concepts

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Identify the independent and the dependent variable, as well as the unit of analysis, in the following hypothesis: Urban residents are more likely than rural residents to be overweight.

Ans: Dependent variable: weight; independent variable: place of residence; unit of analysis: individual.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Variables

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. While studying suicide, Durkheim found another trend he called “social facts” to be important in analyzing social situations. Explain how social facts affect other social characteristics.

Ans: Social forces exist externally from individuals and these forces “push” and “pull” individuals into predictable patterns of behavior.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Emile Durkheim, Structural Strain, Suicide, and Anomie

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Provide two examples of nominal variables.

Ans: Gender (male or female), year in high school (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Measurement

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Give two examples of ordinal variables.

Ans: Somewhat/maybe/a lot and always/never/sometimes.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Measurement

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Give two examples of interval/ratio variables.

Ans: On a scale of 1–10, how satisfied are you with the service? And rank your pain on a level of 1–5.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Measurement

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain the purpose for making variables mutually exclusive.

Ans: When variables are not mutually exclusive that suggests they are not operationalized and therefore cannot be accurately measured.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Mutually Exclusive

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Interval/ratio variables are based on real or relative numeric values. What does this suggest about the variables?

Ans: It suggests that they are attributes that can be ranked and used to conduct mathematical calculations.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Measurement

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain why the question Does racism exist? is an improper research question.

Ans: The question is not operationally defined.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Introduction

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain the purpose of scientific revolutions.

Ans: Scientific revolutions allow the emergence of new explanations for how the social and physical world work. When new explanations arise then individuals have the ability to ask more nuanced questions about society and offer more solutions.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Scientific Revolutions

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Explain the purpose of statistics.

Ans: Statistics are numerical representations of reality; they are used to describe conditions, communicate more effectively, predict outcomes, and develop policy.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why Statistics?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Describe a critical consumer.

Ans: They are people who understand that every statistic is a complex way of conveying information.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why Statistics?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain the three components of scientific analysis.

Ans: Describing how cases are distributed, describing how variables interact, and making predictions.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Conceptual Definitions of Variables

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Name the three criteria that must be met in order to argue successfully that two variables are associated.

Ans: The cause must precede the effect, changes in the dependent must result of a change in the independent variable, and the association must be present “often enough.”

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Independent and Dependent Variables

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain why it is more difficult to measure “hate” than weight.

Ans: Hate is a concept rather than a physical attribute; it has to be operationalized before it can be measured.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Conceptual Definitions of Variables

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain the difference between conceptualization and operationalization.

Ans: Conceptualization is defining what we mean by a concept whereas operationalization is the process of developing variables so that the concept may be measured.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Operational Definitions of Concepts

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain the purpose of “other” as a respondent choice.

Ans: Other allows the variable to be collectively exhaustive.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Measurement

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain how the question wording affects level of measurement.

Ans: The way the question is worded dictates which level of measurement is used. For example, if a question is asked nominally--did you do your homework? Then the answer choice has to be nominal as well, yes or no.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Measurement

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Describe the relationship between data recording and levels of measurement.

Ans: Data can only be recoded from higher order levels of measurement to lower order levels of measurement.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Recording Data

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

Essay

 

  1. What are statistics, and why are they important?

Ans: Statistics are numeric representations of reality that facilitate our ability to describe, communicate, predict, and act. Statistics are important for a number of reasons. Namely, statistics provides a range of analytical tools that we have to approach and live in the world with which we are confronted. Statistics help us to think critically and reflectively about what others tell us about the world so that we can come to our own, well-informed, conclusions.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Why Statistics?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The following is an empirical research question: Does a person’s sexual orientation have an effect on annual income? Consider this research question and answer the following:
  2. State a suitable research hypothesis.
  3. What is the independent variable?
  4. What is the level of measurement for the independent variable?
  5. What is the dependent variable?
  6. What is the level of measurement for the dependent variable?
  7. What is the unit of analysis for the research question?

Ans:

  1. Example: Homosexuals have higher income than heterosexuals.
  2. sexual orientation
  3. nominal
  4. income
  5. interval/ratio
  6. individual

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Variables

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Construct a questionnaire with questions decided for nominal, ordinal, and interval/ratio variables. Defend why your questions are aligned with their associated variables.

Ans: Varies based on students’ questionnaire construction and choices.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Variables

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Your friend made an ecological fallacy about a group of students in your class. Write an e-mail to your friend stating the ecological fallacy, why it is a fallacy, and how you would gather data to prove that it is a fallacy.

Ans: Varies based on students’ choice of fallacy and explanations.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Statistical Uses and Misuses

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Distinguish between the individualistic and ecological fallacy.

Ans: The individualistic fallacy is a type of error that occurs when the characteristics of an individual are imposed upon all of the members of a group to which that individual belongs, whereas the ecological fallacy results from drawing conclusions about individuals based on the characteristics of a group.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ecological Data

Difficulty Level: Medium

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