Test Bank SOC, 6th Edition Nijole V. Benokraitis

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Test Bank SOC, 6th Edition Nijole V. Benokraitis

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Test Bank SOC, 6th Edition Nijole V. Benokraitis

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the term sociology?
  2. Sociology is the enigmatic study of social interaction at the micro level.
  3. Sociology is the scientific study of psychological interactions of criminals with other people in society.
  4. Sociology is the enigmatic study of environmental changes that affect a society.
  5. Sociology is the scientific study of human behavior in society.
  6. Sociology is the scientific study of the physiological changes that people encounter in a society.

 

ANSWER: d

  1. Because common sense is        , it ignores facts that challenge cherished beliefs.
  2. subjective
  3. realistic
  4. unaffected
  5. logical
  6. rational

 

ANSWER: a

  1. According to C. Wright Mills, a person's behavior is influenced by   .
  2. social factors such as religion, ethnicity, and politics
  3. social factors such as conventional wisdom and psychological interactions
  4. genetics
  5. random thoughts
  6. greed

 

ANSWER: a

  1. Sociologist C. Wright Mills called the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and larger social influences the           .
  2. sociological imagination
  3. social predilection
  4. enigmatic perspective
  5. enigmatic behavior
  6. conventional wisdom

 

ANSWER: a


 

  1. Sociologist C. Wright Mills states that the        emphasizes the connection between personal troubles and structural issues.
  2. historical perspective
  3. sociological imagination
  4. enigmatic perspective
  5. enigmatic behavior
  6. conventional wisdom

 

ANSWER: b

  1. A sociologist is conducting a study on a small group of poverty-stricken individuals. She understands that an individual's impoverished status results from larger economic situations and unemployment rates in the local community rather than the individual's personal problems. The sociologist is using                                                                                                        .
  2. social stratification
  3. microsociology
  4. the enigmatic perspective
  5. conventional wisdom
  6. sociological imagination

 

ANSWER: e

  1. Thomas is conducting a study on the work patterns and personal habits of his family members. He shadows them each day to record their daily interactions with each other and with the outside world—be it at school, work, or even the supermarket. In this scenario, such a study of the everyday interactions of people is most likely part of                                                                                                                         .
  2. microsociology
  3. macrosociology
  4. psychoanalysis
  5. gender studies
  6. environmental studies

 

ANSWER: a

  1. Jennifer is studying how welfare policies affect working families. She has paid several visits to families that have agreed to participate in her study and has interviewed them. She has also requested them to fill out a questionnaire about the issues in their daily lives, such as the household budget and marital harmony. With this information, Jennifer   is trying to link the effects of welfare policies to these family issues. The study conducted by Jennifer is part of

_____.

  1. microsociology
  2. macrosociology
  3. physiology
  4. gender studies
  5. psychoanalysis

 

ANSWER: b


 

  1. According to a study in 1992 by Ritzer, why is sociology a powerful tool in understanding people's behavior and society at large?
  2. Because it involves examining micro, macro, and micro–macro forces.
  3. Because it is based solely on conventional wisdom.
  4. Because it focuses exclusively on studying everyday interactions among people.
  5. Because it focuses on a single point of view.
  6. Because it uses tools that are subjective in nature.

 

ANSWER: a

10.Which of the following statements is true of sociology?

  1. Sociology strengthens people's faith in myths and misconceptions.
  2. Sociology makes people's thinking subjective and irrational.
  3. Sociology can help people make more informed decisions.
  4. Sociology is based solely on conventional wisdom.
  5. Sociology ignores facts.

 

ANSWER: c

11.Which of the following abilities are required for critical sociological thinking?

  1. Make snap judgments
  2. Ignore competing evidence
  3. Use your assumptions and prejudices
  4. Rely on emotion
  5. Understand how public policies affect private troubles

 

ANSWER: e

12.Which of the following shape our beliefs, behavior, and experiences?

  1. Our gender
  2. Our ethnicity
  3. Our social class
  4. All of these are correct
  5. None of these are correct

 

ANSWER: d


 

13.Which of the following statements is true of theories?

  1. Theories remain constant and do not keep changing with time.
  2. Theories produce knowledge, guide our research, and help us analyze our findings.
  3. Theories offer explanations that can greatly disrupt the quality of one's everyday life.
  4. Theories are proposed explanations, which are made on the basis of limited evidence.
  5. Theories are known and proved to be true in all cases.

 

ANSWER: b

14.According to sociologist James White, which of the following best describes theories?

  1. Theories are "tools" that don't profess to know "the truth" but "may need replacing" over time as our understanding of society becomes more sophisticated.
  2. Theories refer to the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and larger social influences.
  3. Theories offer explanations that can greatly improve the quality of one's everyday life and overall behavior.
  4. Theories are proposed explanations, which are made on the basis of limited evidence.
  5. Theories are known and proved to be true in all cases.

 

ANSWER: a

  1.          coined the term sociology and is often described as the "father of sociology."
  2. Auguste Comte
  3. Émile Durkheim
  4. Karl Marx
  5. Charles Wright Mills
  6. Max Weber

 

ANSWER: a

16.Auguste Comte maintained that the study of society must be     .

  1. personal
  2. spiritual
  3. empirical
  4. ideological
  5. intuitive

 

ANSWER: c


 

17.Auguste Comte saw sociology as the scientific study of two aspects of society, namely   .

  1. social statics and social dynamics
  2. history and biography
  3. conventional wisdom and facts
  4. ideology and intuition
  5. self-assessment and self-realization

 

ANSWER: a

18.Which of the following is a difference between social statics and social dynamics?

  1. Social statics investigates how principles of social order explain a particular society, while social dynamics explores how individuals and societies change over time.
  2. Social statics investigates ideology, religion, intuition, or conventional wisdom, while social dynamics investigates the interconnections between institutions.
  3. Social statics examines the patterns of individuals' social interactions in specific settings, while social dynamics focuses on large-scale patterns and processes that characterize society as a whole.
  4. Social statics is subjective, while social dynamics is objective.
  5. Social statics focuses on a single point of view, while social dynamics considers many points of view.

 

ANSWER: a

19.Harriet Martineau emphasized the importance of       .

  1. interconnections between countries
  2. social facts
  3. capitalism
  4. systematic data collection through observation and interviews
  5. how individuals and societies change over time

 

ANSWER: d

20.Émile Durkheim agreed with Comte that        .

  1. sociology is the scientific study of social statics
  2. social solidarity can be maintained by a division of labor
  3. sociological research should be subjective
  4. sociology is the scientific study of social dynamics
  5. societies are characterized by unity and cohesion

 

ANSWER: e


 

21.Unlike Auguste Comte, Émile Durkheim      .

  1. saw sociology as the scientific study of two aspects of society: social statics and social dynamics
  2. stressed the importance of microsociology
  3. not only acknowledged the importance of scientific methods to study society but also used them
  4. stressed the importance of macrosociology
  5. merely acknowledged the importance of using scientific methods to study society

 

ANSWER: c

  1.          are aspects of social life, external to the individual, that can be measured.
  2. Social perspectives
  3. Enigmatic perspectives
  4. Behavioral facts
  5. Social facts
  6. Social statics

 

ANSWER: d

23.Sociologists can determine         by examining demographic characteristics such as age, place of residence, and population size.

  1. material facts
  2. social perspectives
  3. social statics
  4. social dynamics
  5. social norms

 

ANSWER: a

24.Place of residence is an example of a(n)        .

  1. material fact
  2. social perspective
  3. enigmatic perspective
  4. sociological imagination
  5. empirical fact

 

ANSWER: a


 

25.Which of the following is an example of a material fact?

  1. Communication style
  2. Population size
  3. How a parent and child relate to each other
  4. Social dynamics
  5. Psychology

 

ANSWER: b

26.Sociologists can gauge         , like communication processes, by observing everyday behavior and how people relate to each other.

  1. nonmaterial facts
  2. enigmatic perspectives
  3. social statics
  4. social dynamics
  5. nonempirical facts

 

ANSWER: a

27.Communication processes are examples of       .

  1. nonmaterial facts
  2. social perspectives
  3. enigmatic perspectives
  4. social dynamics
  5. nonempirical facts

 

ANSWER: a

28.For contemporary sociologists, social facts include collecting and analyzing data on    , such as collective behavior and social movements.

  1. nonempirical facts
  2. historical perspectives
  3. social statics
  4. social dynamics
  5. social currents

 

ANSWER: e


 

29.Social solidarity, or social cohesiveness and harmony, according to Émile Durkheim, is maintained by a(n)                                                                                                                                                                     .

  1. division of labor
  2. enigmatic perspective
  3. social perspective
  4. sociological imagination
  5. social current

 

ANSWER: a

30.According to Durkheim, as the division of labor becomes more specialized,     .

  1. individuals become autonomous and take their own decisions
  2. people become increasingly dependent on others for specific goods and services
  3. people start believing in myths, misconceptions, and follow conventional wisdom
  4. suicide rates increase
  5. social unity decreases

 

ANSWER: b

31.In his classic study        , Durkheim relied on extensive data collection to draw conclusions about social integration.

  1. Social Issues
  2. Social Assimilation
  3. Cohesion
  4. Suicide
  5. Integration

 

ANSWER: d

32.Karl Marx, like Auguste Comte and Émile Durkheim, tried to explain the societal changes that were taking place during           .

  1. the Enlightenment
  2. the Discovery of the New World
  3. the French Revolution
  4. the Industrial Revolution
  5. the Great World War

 

ANSWER: d


 

33.Unlike his predecessors and contemporaries, Marx maintained that     .

  1. social cohesiveness creates disunity
  2. harmony seldom leads to unity in real world
  3. capitalism leads to the downfall of economy
  4. economic issues produce divisiveness rather than social solidarity
  5. the Industrial Revolution brought down social cohesiveness

 

ANSWER: d

34.Karl Marx believed that society is divided into       .

  1. capitalists and proletariat
  2. upper caste and lower caste
  3. developed nations and developing nations
  4. developed nations and underdeveloped nations
  5. groups with a high intelligence quotient and groups with a low intelligence quotient

 

ANSWER: a

35.For Marx,           is a class system in which conflict between the classes is common and society is anything but cohesive.

  1. socialism
  2. communism
  3. capitalism
  4. fascism
  5. altruism

 

ANSWER: c

36.According to Karl Marx, history is a series of       .

  1. class struggles between capitalists and workers
  2. class struggles between men and women
  3. struggle between man and the environment
  4. struggle between religion and science
  5. struggle between atheists and religious leaders

 

ANSWER: a


 

37.In industrial capitalist systems, workers feel       because they don't own or control either the means of production or the product.

  1. alienated
  2. united
  3. harmonious
  4. socially static
  5. socially dynamic

 

ANSWER: a

38.The major focus for capitalists is on         .

  1. increasing profits as much as possible
  2. feeling "connected" to the products or services they sell
  3. maintaining overall social harmony in their companies
  4. social cohesiveness and social solidarity
  5. employee satisfaction

 

ANSWER: a

39.Unlike Karl Marx, Max Weber focused on         .

  1. social organization, a subjective understanding of behavior, and a value-free sociology
  2. economics as a major factor in explaining society
  3. capitalism and its impact on workers' social behavior
  4. the capitalists and the proletariat
  5. a class system in which conflict between the classes is common

 

ANSWER: a

40.Weber posited that an understanding of society requires a "subjective" understanding of behavior. Such understanding   is known as         .

  1. entwicklung
  2. gemeinschaft
  3. gesellschaft
  4. kapitalismus
  5. verstehen

 

ANSWER: e


 

41.In          , a social scientist observes a person's facial expressions, gestures, and listens to his/her words.

  1. direct observational understanding
  2. explanatory understanding
  3. surveillance understanding
  4. common understanding
  5. dynamic understanding

 

ANSWER: a

42.In          , a social scientist tries to grasp the intention and context of a person's behavior.

  1. direct observational understanding
  2. explanatory understanding
  3. surveillance understanding
  4. common understanding
  5. dynamic understanding

 

ANSWER: b

43.Matt notices Julie laughing in the school hallway with a friend. He knows that Julie must be feeling happy or joyful. In this scenario, Matt is using Max Weber's      to deduce that Julie is happy.

  1. direct observational understanding
  2. explanatory understanding
  3. surveillance understanding
  4. common understanding
  5. dynamic understanding

 

ANSWER: a

44.Matt notices Julie laughing in the school hallway with a friend. Matt knows that Julie probably just heard a joke or saw something funny in the hallway. Matt is using Max Weber's verstehen of   _.

  1. direct observational understanding
  2. explanatory understanding
  3. surveillance understanding
  4. common understanding
  5. dynamic understanding

 

ANSWER: b


 

45.One of Jane Addams’ (1860-1935) greatest intellectual legacies is her emphasis on     .

  1. being “value-free”
  2. verstehen
  3. making snap judgments using one’s own prejudices
  4. social cohesion
  5. applying knowledge to everyday problems

 

ANSWER: e

46.Which of the following did W.E.B. du Bois (1868-1963) include as part of the “cure” for prejudice and discrimination?

  1. Promoting black political power
  2. Promoting civil rights
  3. Providing black people with higher education
  4. All of these are correct
  5. None of these are correct

 

ANSWER: d

47.Early sociological thinkers agreed that people are transformed by       .

  1. the weather
  2. each other’s actions, social patterns, and historical changes
  3. sociological theory
  4. being “value-free”
  5. being unique

 

ANSWER: b

48.All sociological theories analyze                 .

  1. latent functions and manifest functions
  2. sources of conflict
  3. why society is organized the way it is and why we behave as we do
  4. capitalists, petit bourgeoisie, and the proletariat
  5. micro-level perspectives

 

ANSWER: c

49.Which of the following statements is true of the views supported by the functionalist theory?

  1. Society is a complex system of interdependent parts that work together to ensure a society's survival.
  2. Society has separate sections that work independently.
  3. Gender inequality is the major source of inequality in society.
  4. People act on the basis of the interpreted meanings attached to interaction with others.
  5. People always separate their personal values, opinions, ideology, and beliefs from scientific research.

 

ANSWER: a


 

50.Some criminologists suggest that criminals learn more about being a criminal in prison than they might learn on streets. This situation represents a(n)      .

  1. intentional function
  2. beneficial function
  3. manifest function
  4. latent function
  5. dysfunction

 

ANSWER: e

  1.          are intended and recognized; they're present and clearly evident.
  2. Manifest functions
  3. Latent functions
  4. Dysfunctions
  5. Underlying functions
  6. Criticisms

 

ANSWER: a

52.The           of the purchase of a new car is to satisfy the requirement of transportation.

  1. latent function
  2. manifest function
  3. peripheral function
  4. underlying function
  5. secondary function

 

ANSWER: b

53______ are unintended and unrecognized; they're present but not immediately obvious.

  1. Manifest functions
  2. Latent functions
  3. Basic functions
  4. Necessary functions
  5. Mandatory functions

 

ANSWER: b


 

54.Many people purchase an expensive car because it serves as a status symbol. The car's service as a status symbol is an example of a           _.

  1. latent function
  2. manifest function
  3. dysfunction
  4. basic function
  5. critical function

 

ANSWER: a

55.One of the common criticisms of the functionalist theory is that it       .

  1. is so focused on order and stability that it often ignores social change
  2. is too focused on social change and often ignores social cohesion
  3. often ignores the contribution of gender in understanding social change
  4. often focuses too much on discrimination and inequality
  5. is too focused on micro-level factors

 

ANSWER: a

56.Which of the following statements is true of conflict theory?

  1. Society is composed of interrelated parts that work to maintain society's cohesion.
  2. It examines how and why groups disagree, struggle over power, and compete for scarce resources.
  3. Gender inequality is the major source of inequality in society.
  4. It acts on the basis of the interpreted meanings attached to interaction with others.
  5. People always separate their personal values, opinions, ideology, and beliefs from scientific research.

 

ANSWER: b

57.One of the criticisms of conflict theory is that it        .

  1. glosses over widespread inequality that a handful of powerful people create and maintain
  2. sees changes in society as natural, inevitable, and even desirable
  3. overemphasizes competition and coercion at the expense of order and stability
  4. often overlooks gender, social class, and generational gaps
  5. overlooks the widespread impact of macro-level factors

 

ANSWER: c


 

58.Which of the following statements is true of feminist theories?

  1. They emphasize order, stability, cohesion, and consensus.
  2. They maintain that women often suffer injustice primarily because of their low educational levels.
  3. They emphasize that women should be freed from traditionally oppressive expectations, constraints, roles, and behavior.
  4. They see the changes in society as natural, inevitable, and even desirable.
  5. They demand that women should be given a higher status in society than men as they have been suppressed for so long.

ANSWER: c

59.Which of the following is a criticism of feminist theories?

  1. They overemphasize conflict and coercion.
  2. They analyze contemporary societies characterized by postindustrialization and consumerism.
  3. They are so focused on order and stability that they often ignore social change.
  4. They often overlook gender, social class, and generational gaps.
  5. They sometimes have an optimistic and unrealistic view of people’s everyday choices.

 

ANSWER: d

60.Which of the following statements is true of the views supported by symbolic interaction theory?

  1. Society is composed of interrelated parts that work to maintain society's cohesion.
  2. Society as a whole should be kept at the center of sociological research.
  3. Gender inequality is the major source of inequality in society.
  4. People act on the basis of the meaning they attribute to others.
  5. People always separate their personal values, opinions, ideology, and beliefs from scientific research.

 

ANSWER: d

61.Symbolic interaction theory is commonly criticized because              .

  1. it has lost its bearings by concentrating on personal issues like greater sexual freedom
  2. it often ignores cooperation and harmony
  3. it often glosses over widespread inequality that a handful of powerful people create and maintain
  4. it is so focused on order and stability that it often ignores social change
  5. it overlooks the widespread impact of macro-level factors on our everyday behavior and relationships

 

ANSWER: e


 

62.Postmodern theory analyzes                .

  1. women’s social, economic, and political inequality
  2. contemporary societies characterized by postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications
  3. people’s everyday behavior through the communication of knowledge, ideas, beliefs, and attitudes
  4. how and why groups disagree, struggle over power, and compete for scarce resources
  5. manifest functions, latent functions, and dysfunctions

 

ANSWER: b

63.Sociology has many        , which offer specific theories that reinforce and illustrate functionalist, conflict, feminist, and interactionist approaches.

  1. social facts
  2. macro-level factors
  3. subfields
  4. latent functions
  5. social classes

 

ANSWER: c

64.Sociology is also known as conventional wisdom.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: False

65.Sociology is subjective.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: False

66.The sociological perspective analyzes how social context influences people's lives.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: True

67.The "sociological imagination" is at the center of the sociological perspective.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: True


 

68.The sociological imagination emphasizes the connection between men and women.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: False

69.Macrosociology examines the patterns of individuals' social interaction in specific settings.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: False

70.Microsociology focuses on large-scale patterns and processes that characterize society as a whole.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: False

71.Microsociology and macrosociology differ conceptually, but are interrelated.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: True

72.Recognizing and understanding diversity is one of sociology's central themes.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: True

73.Émile Durkheim is known as the "father of sociology."

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: False

74.Social dynamics investigates how principles of social order explain a particular society, as well as the interconnections between institutions.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: False

75.Social statics explores how individuals and societies change over time.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: False


 

76.A researcher who is value free is one who separates her or his personal values, opinions, ideology, and beliefs from scientific research.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: True

77.Functionalism often glosses over the widespread inequality that a handful of powerful people create and maintain.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: True

78.Conflict theorists see disagreement and the resulting changes in society as natural, inevitable, and even desirable.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: True

79.Conflict theorists disagree with functionalists that many societal arrangements are functional.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: False

80.Conflict theorists see society as cooperative and harmonious.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: False

81.Feminist scholars disagree with contemporary conflict theorists' view that much of society is characterized by tension and struggle.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: False

82.Before the 1960s women's movement in the United States, very few sociologists published anything about gender roles.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: True


 

83.George Herbert Mead's assertion that the human mind and self arise in the process of social communication became the foundation of the symbolic interaction schools of thought in sociology and social psychology.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: True

84.Our actions are based on social interaction in the sense that people take each other into account in their own behavior.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER: True

85.Is common sense subjective? Explain with an example.

ANSWER: Answers will vary. Common sense is subjective. If a woman crashes into one's car, one might conclude, according to the conventional wisdom, statements that one has heard over the years, that "women are terrible drivers." In fact, most drivers involved in crashes are men—especially teenagers and those aged   70 and older (Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 2013). Thus, objective data show that, overall, men are worse drivers than women.

86.How is a sociological imagination helpful?

ANSWER: Answers will vary. A sociological imagination helps us understand how larger social forces affect individuals and how individuals affect society. It identifies why our personal troubles often reflect larger public issues and policies over which we have little, if any, control. A sociological imagination relies on both micro- and macro-level approaches to understand our social world.

87.Briefly explain microsociology.

ANSWER: Answers will vary. Microsociology examines the patterns of individuals' social interaction in specific settings. In most of one's relationships, one interacts with others on a micro, or "small," level. These everyday interactions involve what people think, say, or do on a daily basis.

88.How does studying sociology shape social and public policies and practices?

ANSWER: Answers will vary. Sociology is valuable in applied, clinical, and policy settings because many jobs require understanding society and research to create social change. According to a director of a research institute, sociology increased her professional contributions: "I can look at problems of concern to the National Institutes of Health and say 'here's a different way to solve this problem'" (Nyseth et al., 2011: 48).


 

89.Who is described as the "father of sociology"? Explain how he contributed to the field of sociology.

ANSWER: Answers will vary. Auguste Comte coined the term sociology and is often described as the "father of sociology." Comte maintained that the study of society must be empirical. That is, information should be based on observations, experiments, or other data collection rather than on ideology, religion, intuition, or conventional wisdom. He saw sociology as the scientific study of two aspects of society: social statics and social dynamics. Social statics investigates how principles of social order explain a particular society, as   well as the interconnections between institutions. Social dynamics explores how individuals and societies change over time. Comte's emphasis on social order and change within and across societies is still useful today because many sociologists examine the relationships between education and politics (social statics),   as well as how such interconnections change over time (social dynamics).

90.What are the two aspects of society according to Auguste Comte?

ANSWER: Answers will vary. Auguste Comte saw sociology as the scientific study of two aspects of society: social statics and social dynamics. Social statics investigates how principles of social order explain a particular society, as well as the interconnections between institutions. Social dynamics explores how individuals and societies change over time.

91.What are social facts?

ANSWER: Answers will vary. To be scientific, Durkheim maintained, sociology must study social facts—aspects of social life, external to the individual, that can be measured. Sociologists can determine material facts by examining demographic characteristics such as age, place of residence, and population size. They can gauge nonmaterial facts, like communication processes, by observing everyday behavior and how people relate to each other. For contemporary sociologists, social facts also include collecting and analyzing data on social currents, such as collective behavior and social movements.

92.Define petit bourgeoisie and proletariat.

ANSWER: Answers will vary. Petit bourgeoisie is defined as small-business owners and workers who still have their own means of production but might end up in the proletariat because they're driven out by competition or their businesses fail. Proletariat is defined as the masses of workers who depend on wages to survive, have few resources, and make up the working class.

93.Explain the concept of dysfunctions with an example.

ANSWER: Answers will vary. Dysfunctions are social patterns that have a negative impact on a group or society. When one part of society isn't working, it affects other parts by creating conflict, divisiveness, and social problems. Consider religion. In the United States, the Catholic Church's stance on issues such as not ordaining women to be priests and denouncing abortion and homosexuality has produced a rift between those who embrace and those who reject the papal edicts. In other countries, religious intolerance has led to wars and terrorism.


 

94.What are the two types of functions in functionalism? Explain with examples.

ANSWER: Answers will vary. There are two kinds of functions in functionalism. Manifest functions are intended and recognized; they're present and clearly evident. Latent functions are unintended and unrecognized; they're present but not immediately obvious.

Consider the marriage ceremony. Its primary manifest function is to publicize the formation of a new family unit and to legitimize sexual intercourse and childbirth (even though both might occur outside of marriage). The latent functions of a marriage ceremony include communicating a "hands-off" message to suitors, providing the new couple with household goods and products through bridal showers and wedding gifts, and redefining family boundaries to include in-laws or stepfamily members.

95.Discuss the basic ideas supported by feminist theories.

ANSWER: Answers will vary. Feminist theories examine women's social, economic, and political inequality.

The theories maintain that women often suffer injustice primarily because of their gender rather than personal inadequacies such as low educational levels or not caring about success. Feminist scholars assert that people should be treated fairly and equally regardless not only of their sex but also of other characteristics like race, ethnicity, national origin, age, religion, class, sexual orientation, or disability.

96.Discuss the drawbacks of feminist theories.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. One criticism of feminist theories is that many feminists are part of an "old girl network" that hasn't always welcomed different points of view from black, Asian American, American Indian, Muslim, Latina, lesbian, working-class, and disabled women. A second criticism is that feminist perspectives tend to downplay social class inequality by focusing on low-income and minority women but not on their male counterparts. Thus, some contend, feminist theories aren't as gender balanced as they claim. Some critics, including feminists, also question whether feminist scholars have lost their bearings by concentrating on personal issues such as greater sexual freedom rather than broader social issues, particularly wage inequality.

97.Explain the concept of social interaction with an example.

ANSWER: Answers will vary. One's actions are based on social interaction in the sense that people take each other into account in their own behavior. Thus, one acts differently in different social settings and continuously adjusts one's behavior, including one's body language, as one interacts. A woman's interactions with her husband are different from those with her children. And she will interact still differently when she is teaching, talking to a colleague in the hall, or addressing an audience at a professional conference.

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