Test Bank Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences, 6th Edition Frederick J Gravetter

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Test Bank Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences, 6th Edition Frederick J Gravetter

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Test Bank Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences, 6th Edition Frederick J Gravetter

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

1. When you “know” that you do not want to eat chocolate-covered crickets, even when everyone around you says that they taste great, your decision is based on the method of ____.

 

 

 

 

 

2. A student who believes that his or her performance on tests is influenced by wearing a lucky hat is using the method of ____.

 

 

 

 

 

3. A person who buys a lottery ticket because s/he just feels lucky is using the method of ____.

 

 

 

 

 

4. Which method of acquiring knowledge is being used when people make decisions based on instinct or hunches?

 

 

 

 

 

5. What is a potential problem with the method of authority?

 

 

 

 

 

6. Using a sports star to sell clothing in a television commercial relies upon which nonscientific method of acquiring knowledge?

 

 

 

 

 

7. Looking up your local weather report online is an example of using the ____.

 

 

 

 

 

8. Which method of acquiring knowledge is being used by students who are learning from teachers and textbooks?

 

 

 

 

 

9. The mode of inquiry that is called the method of faith is a variant of which other method of inquiry?

 

 

 

 

 

10. Marisol just found out she is pregnant and tells everyone that she has a feeling she will have a girl.  In this case, Marisol is using the ____.

 

 

 

 

 

11. A young child believing everything that her kindergarten teacher says to be true is an example of ____.

 

 

 

 

 

12. Last year Tomas and his friend Jamie were both too short to ride the rollercoaster. Jamie went to the park this year and was tall enough to ride. Because Tomas is taller than Jamie, he thinks that he will be able to ride the rollercoaster as well. Tomas is using the ____ to answer his question.

 

 

 

 

 

13. An explanation is rational if it is based on ____.

 

 

 

 

 

14. Which potential problem can occur when the rational method is used?

 

 

 

 

 

15. Kenji believes that food poisoning causes food aversions, so when he finds out that his friend Brielle hates seafood, he assumes that Brielle must have had food poisoning after eating seafood sometime in her past. Kenji is using the ____.

 

 

 

 

 

16. An artist tries putting a freshly painted canvas outside during a rainstorm to see how the painting will change from the pattern of the raindrops. Which method of acquiring knowledge is she using?

 

 

 

 

 

17. Visual illusions, such as the vertical/horizontal illusion, provide a demonstration of one problem with the ____ method of knowing or acquiring knowledge.

 

 

 

 

 

18. When your doctor uses a stethoscope to listen to your heart, the doctor is gathering information by using the ____.

 

 

 

 

 

19. An explanation is empirical if it is based on ____.

 

 

 

 

 

20. A limitation of using the method of empiricism is that ____.

 

 

 

 

 

21. A limitation of using the rational method is that ____.

 

 

 

 

 

22. When people make an observation, then form a hypothesis that explains the observation, and then make more observations to test the credibility of the hypothesis, they are using the ____.

 

 

 

 

 

23. Which of the following statements accurately describes the scientific method?

 

 

 

 

 

24. What kind of reasoning uses a general statement to make conclusions about specific examples?

 

 

 

 

 

25. What kind of reasoning uses a few specific observations to produce a statement about a larger possible set of observations?

 

 

 

 

 

26. Using observations of a small number of humans to make a statement about human behavior in general is an example of ____ reasoning.

 

 

 

 

 

27. Based on observations of his own children, Jean Piaget formed a theory about the cognitive development of all children. This is an example of ____ reasoning.

 

 

 

 

 

28. A hypothesis is a ____ statement and a prediction is a ____ statement.

 

 

 

 

 

29. The third step of the scientific method uses a general hypothesis to develop a testable predication. This step involves the use of ____.

 

 

 

 

 

30. In the scientific method, a prediction is evaluated by ____.

 

 

 

 

 

31. What is meant by the saying, “science is empirical?”

 

 

 

 

 

32. The phrase “science is objective” means that scientific answers are ____.

 

 

 

 

 

33. Publicly repeating a study by copying the methods exactly is referred to as ____.

 

 

 

 

 

34. Tiffany is researching methods used to treat autism spectrum disorders and begins by searching on the Internet. Which statement should make her suspicious that she is on a site rooted in pseudoscience?

 

 

 

 

 

35. A distinction between science and pseudoscience is that ____.

 

 

 

 

 

36. Lowell is very concerned about his grandmother, who has recently been diagnosed with dementia. He wants to learn more about it, and checks out the jacket quotes on some currently popular books. Which quote should reassure him that the book is based in science rather than pseudoscience?

 

 

 

 

 

37. Pseudoscience is based on ____.

 

 

 

 

 

38. How do quantitative research and qualitative research differ?

 

 

 

 

 

39. A researcher conducts a study in which 50 rats are assigned to different treatments and tested. In the study, the rats are called research ____.

 

 

 

 

 

40. A researcher conducts a study in which 50 college students are assigned to different treatments and tested. In the study, the students are called ____.

 

 

 

 

 

41. If you are a psychologist embarking on a research study, what should you do first?

 

 

 

 

 

True / False

 

 

 

42. A football player who knows that his performance will be better if he wears his lucky shirt is using the method of faith.

 

 

 

 

 

43. Finding information in a textbook is an example of using the rational method of inquiry.

 

 

 

 

 

44. Dallas is using the rational method when, upon seeing that birds eating certain berries do not die, concludes that the berries are not poisonous.

 

 

 

 

 

45. Clinton is using the empirical method when he decides to eat a handful of berries to see if they are poisonous.

 

 

 

 

 

46. You have a terrible toothache, so you visit a dentist to find out what is wrong with your tooth. This is an example of using the method of authority.

 

 

 

 

 

47. The method of intuition can be valuable when making ethical or moral decisions by doing what “feels” right.

 

 

 

 

 

48. You have dinner reservations at 7:30 at a restaurant that is 30 minutes away and it is already 7:20, leading you to conclude that you are going to be late. This is an example of using the empirical method.

 

 

 

 

 

49. Based on a few students whom you know, you decide that art majors wear funky clothes and that physics majors tend to be nerds. This is an example of inductive reasoning.

 

 

 

 

 

50. Part of the scientific method involves using a hypothesis to make predictions.

 

 

 

 

 

51. Using a hypothesis to predict how people will behave demonstrates the use of induction.

 

 

 

 

 

52. In the scientific method, the process of forming a hypothesis means that you are trying to find a possible explanation for the phenomenon that you have observed.

 

 

 

 

 

53. If the scientific method is being used to evaluate a hypothesis predicting a specific relationship between two variables, then it is essential that both variables can be measured.

 

 

 

 

 

54. An important element of the scientific method is that research results should be made public.

 

 

 

 

 

55. Research participants must be informed of all relevant aspects of the study, including any risks or dangers that may be involved.

 

 

 

 

 

56. Pseudoscience is based on objective, empirical evidence.

 

 

 

 

 

57. In the scientific method, the actual research study is not done until after the researcher has formed a hypothesis and made a specific prediction.

 

 

 

 

 

58. One critical component of the scientific method is that all answers or explanations must be demonstrated empirically.

 

 

 

 

 

59. A good hypothesis should make a statement about the existence of a relationship, a difference, or a treatment effect.

 

 

 

 

 

60. Humans who participate in a research study are properly called research subjects.

 

 

 

 

 

61. One difference between a scientific answer and answers gained by other methods is that the scientific answer is more likely to be an absolute or final answer.

 

 

 

 

 

Essay

 

 

 

62. Describe a problem that can arise when you are trying to obtain information using only the method of authority. How is this problem avoided in the scientific method?

 

 

 

 

63. Describe how the rational method and the method of empiricism are both utilized as parts of the scientific method.

 

 

 

 

64. Distinguish between induction and deduction and describe how each is used in the scientific method.

 

 

 

 

65. Identify the basic steps in the scientific method, and describe how the scientific method is used to answer questions such as, “Why are some marriages successful and others are not?”

 

 

 

 

66. Explain what it means to say that the scientific method or the research process can be viewed as a never-ending circle or a spiral of steps rather than a linear process that leads to an end.

 

 

 

 

67. Distinguish between science and pseudoscience.

 

 

 

 

68. How do quantitative and qualitative research differ?

 

 

 

 

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