Chapter 1: Your Role in Children's Wellness
1.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Which statement defines wellness?
- A) A positive state of health and well-being.
- B) A positive approach to learning.
- C) A positive attitude.
- D) A positive style or personality.
2) Which of the following promotes wellness?
- A) Learning to eat a healthy diet, access to health care, exercise, and sleep.
- B) Allowing children to eat sugary foods as a sometimes food.
- C) Learning healthy practices, such as being overly cautious to avoid accidental injuries.
- D) Practicing the a-b-c's every day.
3) What does it mean when we say that nutrition, health, and safety are closely aligned and interrelated?
- A) The healthful benefit of one area affects positive outcomes in the others, and gaps or challenges in one area negatively affect outcomes in the other areas.
- B) Physical health has a greater long term effect on social, emotional, and mental health development for children.
- C) Healthy nutrition choices make the most important and significant contribution to health and safety for children.
- D) Creating a safe environment for children creates opportunities for well-nourished, physically active, and illness free children.
4) Why is it important for children to learn healthy practices that lead to wellness during the early childhood years?
- A) It improves children's ability to follow the rules at school.
- B) It improves children's behavior in classroom settings.
- C) It establishes a foundation which makes teaching easier for educators.
- D) It improves children's ability to learn and establishes the course for future development.
5) What gene factors influence a child’s long-term diet, creating a positive or negative impact on long-term health?
- A) Physical movement during the early childhood years
- B) The physical traits of the infant, such as hair and skin color
- C) A mother’s diet and weight gain during pregnancy, the infant’s birth weight, and the infant’s diet
- D) The infant’s taste buds and which type of food they prefer
6) Why is it important for children’s mental health needs to be addressed?
- A) Mental Health is directly related to safety.
- B) Physical development and mental health go hand in hand.
- C) Children with mental health needs learn to adapt independently and grow up to be healthy individuals.
- D) Unresolved mental health concerns introduce risk factors for disease, injury, and limit healthy life styles.
7) What is the best definition of the contexts that influences a child's growth and development?
- A) The environment, circumstances, and interactions that surround the child and affect the child's experiences.
- B) The way a child behaves with people and toys.
- C) The child's pattern of school attendance and illness.
- D) Children’s growth and development is unique; they grow in isolation and teachers are the only ones to influence their development.
8) When preparing to teach in a multicultural classroom, educators should consider:
- A) Perspectives about children's nutrition, health, and safety will vary among the children’s’ families.
- B) Children who are learning English will not face challenges in learning and conversing with the other children.
- C) The likelihood of being assigned to teach in a multicultural classroom is low.
- D) Teachers and parents beliefs and expectations will always be the same, no matter the cultural or ethnic backgrounds of the children they serve.
9) Which of the following statements is true regarding children living in poverty?
- A) Poverty does not contribute to every negative influence on children's wellness.
- B) Poverty puts children at risk for conditions that challenge their ability to learn.
- C) Poverty’s negative influences are overcome by a good early childhood education experience.
- D) Poverty may require families to make difficult choices, such as which community partners to collaborate with and who will serve as role models for their children.
10) NAEYC's Code of Ethical Conduct and Statement of Commitment is defined as::
- A) The Code is a guide for teachers to know how to decorate their early childhood classroom to be inviting for children to learn.
- B) The Code describes that teachers must follow practices the way they have always been done.
- C) The Code is not useful when advocating for young children’s development.
- D) The Code describes the dispositions, values, beliefs, and attitudes held by professional teachers of young children.
11) How can teachers teach wellness concepts during the early childhood years?
- A) Young children learn wellness concepts through physical activity, teachers’ modeling, and reinforcement at home.
- B) Taking time to teach wellness concepts in school may put children behind academically, therefore, teachers should focus on teaching reading and math.
- C) Teachers need to teach these concepts because they are not being taught at home.
- D) Elementary school curriculum does not allow teachers to present wellness concepts, therefore this topic should only be taught at home.
12) Experience and learning change the "architecture" of the brain by:
- A) Increasing the number of neurons in the early years.
- B) Decreasing brain plasticity.
- C) Reinforcing the neural connections that are used and pruning those that are not used.
- D) Decreasing the complexity of the brain cell network of connections.
13) What is brain plasticity?
- A) The brain development problems that occur due to exposure to environmental toxins.
- B) The brain's ability to hold on to past information.
- C) The decrease in the complexity of the brain cell network of connections.
- D) The brain's ability to be flexible and change when new information expands or replaces previous knowledge.
14) Teachers can encourage healthy brain development through teaching approaches such as:
- A) Creating opportunities for children to experience negative thoughts and feelings.
- B) Creating opportunities for language, cognitive problem solving skills, and social and emotional play.
- C) Asking children to copy the teacher's art project.
- D) By eliminating the opportunity for children to test ideas and repeat newly discovered skills.
15) Scaffolding is a teaching process that guides the learning process by:
- A) Offering challenges that are just beyond the child's current level of understanding and ability.
- B) Expecting the child to be successful with the current activity before trying something harder.
- C) Waiting for the child to ask for activities that are more challenging.
- D) Focusing on repeating structured activities that are part of the curriculum.
16) Which of the following does an interactive teaching process involve?
- A) Fun, colorful, and interactive early childhood classroom decorations.
- B) Commitment to using evidence-based approaches with purposeful and intentional planning.
- C) Inclusion of cultural experiences, even if they are not accurate or relevant.
- D) Focus on a single teaching strategy.
17) Which of the following is least important when planning a wellness curriculum?
- A) Considering the target age group.
- B) Plan a majority of teacher-directed activities.
- C) Include relevant local issues.
- D) Review all activities for safety.
18) Which of the following statements is true about involving families in wellness curriculum?
- A) Teachers should avoid parents' personal stories about family traditions if they conflict with the teaching goals.
- B) Families should be recognized as the best resource for sharing information about their culture.
- C) Teachers should avoid talking to parents about certain unmet health needs when families are experiencing high levels of stress.
- D) Involving families should not include a forum for discussing conflicting points of view.
19) Which is the least important reason for teachers to collaborate with community partners when planning a wellness curriculum?
- A) Community partners will bring current information about nutrition, health, and safety.
- B) Community partners may be willing to share information with children and families or offer training for teachers.
- C) Community partner participation may help teachers to get a positive performance evaluation.
- D) Community partners collaboration broadens the impact of the wellness effort and creates as support system.
20) Why should teachers encourage wellness concepts that are taught at school to be reinforced at home?
- A) To raise concern or frighten children about topics such as fire drills.
- B) To introduce families to new information and encourage healthful behaviors at home.
- C) To further explain that unhealthy lifestyles are dangerous.
- D) To provide a reason for teachers to send an email or newsletter.
1.2 True/False Questions
1) Wellness is a positive state of well-being that emerges from healthful practices.
2) A child’s diet does not have a predisposition for good or poor health that is influenced by how specific genes are expressed.
3) The interrelationships among nutrition, health, and safety mean that the healthful benefits of one factor influence positive outcomes in the others.
4) The contexts in which children live give insight into child development but do not influence a child's wellness.
5) The factors that impact children's wellness are not well known.
6) Poverty contributes to nearly every negative influence on children's wellness.
7) Homelessness, environmental toxins, and food insecurity are adult issues that do not affect young children.
8) The NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct and Statement of Commitment articulates the dispositions, values, beliefs, and attitudes held by professional teachers of young children.
9) Healthy brain development includes a process called brain plasticity which allows the brain to replace previous knowledge when new information is presented.
10) "Use it or lose it" is a phrase that refers to physical muscle strength and should not be used when discussing brain development.
11) Evidence based practices refer to teaching approaches that can be observed.
12) Structuring experiences that are familiar and interesting to children, but are just beyond their current level of understanding and ability, helps children construct knowledge through a process called scaffolding.
13) Learning occurs primarily through watching others.
14) Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP) focus only on the child's age.
15) Purposeful teaching suggest that teachers are investigators, where they observe, adjust plans, and select developmentally appropriate topics and activities to achieve better outcomes.
16) Adjusting activities to meet the needs of children who have special developmental or health needs, or are learning English, is an example of using evidence based practices and purposeful teaching to enhance children's learning.
17) Working with families is not an expectation of professional early childhood educators.
18) Children benefit when teachers recognize that parents are the primary educators of young children.
19) Partnering with families and community members is one way that teachers advocate for the health and wellness of young children.
20) Making a commitment to the high standards of the teaching profession may require teachers to reflect on their current practices and set goals to become healthful role models.
1.3 Essay Questions
1) Imagine that you are an early childhood teacher. You have been asked to share information with family members and other teachers about wellness; what it is and how families and teachers can influence children's wellness. How would you describe the importance of wellness and how it is developed? What challenges or threats to children's wellness would you present? What action steps would you offer to engage families and teachers in making a plan to promote children's wellness?
2) Identify four factors that can negatively influence children's wellness. Describe how each factor can negatively influence the child's nutrition, health, and safety. Discuss how children's learning can also be negatively impacted.
3) Purposeful and intentional teaching is a characteristic of professional educators. Explain what is met by evidence-based practices. Provide five examples of common teaching strategies that teachers use, and explain how each strategy purposefully engages children in the learning process.
4) What should teachers consider when designing a wellness curriculum? Discuss five important components that would be beneficial to a wellness curriculum and the children’s learning experience.
5) Select a particular age group (birth to grade 3), and identify developmentally appropriate activities to encourage and foster healthy lifestyle practices. Explain how the healthy practices addresses the developmental needs of the specific age group. Describe how you will incorporate the healthy lifestyle practices across the four developmental domains (list and describe each domain briefly as you explain).
6) Accessing resources is presented in the text as an important way to inform the wellness curriculum, keeping it current and relevant to emerging trends and appropriate for advancing healthful behaviors. Discuss some of the supports that assist teachers in designing a wellness curriculum. Which resources will you use? How will you go about using these resources? What is important for you to consider as you decide whether a resource is credible?
7) Partnering with families and community members is an important way for teachers to advocate for children's wellness and ensure that the classroom wellness focus is relevant and part of a broader community of health and wellness efforts. Describe how you would go about engaging parents and community health and wellness professionals in discussion about children's wellness. What would you do to begin this collaboration? What questions would you present to the group to encourage discussion? How would you assist the group to identify an action plan?