Test Bank Managing Business Ethics Making Ethical Decisions 1st Edition by Alfred A. Marcus

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Test Bank Managing Business Ethics Making Ethical Decisions 1st Edition by Alfred A. Marcus

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Test Bank Managing Business Ethics Making Ethical Decisions 1st Edition by Alfred A. Marcus

Test Bank

Chapter 1: A Commonsense Approach to Business Ethics

  1. The Greek philosopher ______ said “the unexamined life is not worth living.”
  2. Plato
  3. Aristotle
  4. Kant
  5. Socrates

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain why it is difficult to make ethical choices.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Introduction: Ethics is Tough!

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Ethical decisions are hard to address because they involve ______.
  2. uncertainty
  3. only one party
  4. one ethical standard
  5. a direct order

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.2: Describe what an ethical decision is.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethical Decisions and Ethical Dilemmas

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Margaret, a sales representative for a large hotel, reasons that she should help her colleagues with sales leads so that teamwork is enhanced in the workplace. This scenario is an example of a(n) ______.
  2. intent to manipulate
  3. decision
  4. deviant act
  5. counterproductive behavior

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.2: Describe what an ethical decision is.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethical Decisions and Ethical Dilemmas

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. A specific commitment to action is a(n) ______.
  2. value
  3. egoistic act
  4. citizenship behavior
  5. decision

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.2: Describe what an ethical decision is.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethical Decisions and Ethical Dilemmas

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A decision process begins with the ______ and ends with the ______.
  2. specific commitment to action; identification of a stimulus for action
  3. identification of a stimulus for action; specific commitment to action
  4. ethical intention; ethical dilemma
  5. ethical intention; ethical issues awareness

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.2: Describe what an ethical decision is.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Decisions and Ethical Dilemmas

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When there are no steps to address a given problem, a person is facing a(n) ______ decision.
  2. structured
  3. unstructured
  4. simple
  5. recurring

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.2: Describe what an ethical decision is.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethical Decisions and Ethical Dilemmas

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. For the first time, Barry, who is an account representative for a bank, just witnessed a coworker making inappropriate comments to another employee about her appearance and has to decide what to do. This scenario is an example of a(n) ______ decision.
  2. simple
  3. routine
  4. unstructured
  5. structured

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.2: Describe what an ethical decision is.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethical Decisions and Ethical Dilemmas

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. When dealing with an ethical dilemma, ______ of the alternative courses of action seem to have undesirable properties.
  2. none
  3. some
  4. a majority
  5. all of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.2: Describe what an ethical decision is.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethical Decisions and Ethical Dilemmas

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. John makes a mistake with a customer’s order and can’t decide whether to tell the customer about the situation and deal with the backlash, or keep quiet about the error and potentially receive a reprimand from his boss. John faces an ethical ______.
  2. crisis
  3. dilemma
  4. intention
  5. progression

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.2: Describe what an ethical decision is.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethical Decisions and Ethical Dilemmas

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. ______ occurs when there are limitations to a decision-maker’s cognitive ability.
  2. Bounded rationality
  3. Rationality
  4. Garbage can thinking
  5. Dialectical inquiry

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.2: Describe what an ethical decision is.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Decisions and Ethical Dilemmas

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. When we selectively choose and focus on certain information that is deemed important while filtering out extraneous information, we are using a form of ______.
  2. nominal grouping technique
  3. dialectical inquiry
  4. bounded rationality
  5. objective thinking

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.2: Describe what an ethical decision is.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethical Decisions and Ethical Dilemmas

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. It is not always possible to achieve ______ solutions to ethical problems, which highlights the tragic nature of ethical decisions.
  2. win-win
  3. win-lose
  4. lose-win
  5. lose-lose

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Recognize the tragic nature of ethical decision-making: Someone may be hurt.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Someone May Be Hurt

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Psychologist ______ argues that intuitions are the main factor driving our ethical decision-making.
  2. John Mills
  3. Frank Kant
  4. Jonathan Haidt
  5. Ralph Mathis

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.4: State why intuition must be supplemented by reason in making ethical choices.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Intuition Versus Reasoning

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Brain scans show that individuals make ethical choices very ______.
  2. slowly
  3. methodically
  4. deliberately
  5. quickly

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: State why intuition must be supplemented by reason in making ethical choices.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Intuition Versus Reasoning

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ are often used by individuals to justify their ethical choices.
  2. Self-serving rationalizations
  3. Self-serving biases
  4. Cognitive barriers
  5. Cognitive dissonances

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.4: State why intuition must be supplemented by reason in making ethical choices.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Intuition Versus Reasoning

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In novel or complex situations, ______ are not a reliable guide to action.
  2. biases
  3. intuitions
  4. questions
  5. problems

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: State why intuition must be supplemented by reason in making ethical choices.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Intuition Versus Reasoning

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In order to make good ethical decisions, it is important to supplement intuitions with ______.
  2. affect
  3. timed analysis
  4. reason
  5. reverse perspective

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.4: State why intuition must be supplemented by reason in making ethical choices.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Intuition Versus Reasoning

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Benjamin Franklin referred to his approach to decision-making as ______.
  2. moral or prudential algebra
  3. ethical calculus
  4. reverse causation
  5. logical geometry

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how the weight-of-reasons framework leads to addressing root causes and not just implementing quick fixes.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: A Commonsense Method of Making Ethical Choices: The Weight-of-Reasons Framework

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Benjamin Franklin’s framework for making sound decisions is called the ______ framework.
  2. group think
  3. deindividuation
  4. loss of individuality
  5. weight-of-reasons

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how the weight-of-reasons framework leads to addressing root causes and not just implementing quick fixes.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: A Commonsense Method of Making Ethical Choices: The Weight-of-Reasons Framework

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The weight-of-reasons approach to decision making is a ______ approach to ethical decision-making.
  2. cognitive
  3. affective
  4. commonsense
  5. biased

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how the weight-of-reasons framework leads to addressing root causes and not just implementing quick fixes.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Understanding the Framework

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Commonsense ethics means ______.
  2. coming up with quick fixes and over time developing long-term solutions that address underlying root causes
  3. avoiding ethical dilemmas at all costs
  4. always relying on group norms to make ethical decisions
  5. not trusting your intutitions

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how the weight-of-reasons framework leads to addressing root causes and not just implementing quick fixes.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Understanding the Framework

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. An advantage of the weight-of-reasons approach is that it enables individuals to feel less ______.
  2. remorse
  3. hopefulness
  4. altruism
  5. shame

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how the weight-of-reasons framework leads to addressing root causes and not just implementing quick fixes.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Understanding the Framework

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The commonsense weight-of-reasons approach is consistent with the perspective of America’s tradition of ______.
  2. altruism
  3. teleology
  4. deontology
  5. pragmatism

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how the weight-of-reasons framework leads to addressing root causes and not just implementing quick fixes.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Understanding the Framework

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ occurs when an individual recognizes that an ethical issue exists.
  2. Sensebreaking
  3. Sensemaking
  4. Commonsensing
  5. Rulebreaking

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Step 1: Identifying the Issue

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The process of applying the weight-of-reasons framework begins with ______.
  2. illuminating
  3. sensemaking
  4. sensebreaking
  5. reverse intuitiing

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Step 1: Identifying the Issue

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ happens when a person identifies, interprets, and acts upon information from the external environment.
  2. Dealmaking
  3. Sensebreaking
  4. Sensemaking
  5. Forward causation

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Step 1: Identifying the Issue

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Mary, a financial accountant employed at a large firm, feels uncomfortable when she determines that several clients may have misrepresented some of their employer’s cost information to enhance the bottom line. This discomfort is an example of ______.
  2. crossed-rationality
  3. cognitive dissonance
  4. deduction
  5. reduced instrumentality

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Step 1: Identifying the Issue

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Robert is a human resource director at a small high-tech company and begins to recognize that workplace-bullying is a problem in many work groups. The situation is an example of ______.
  2. crossed-relating
  3. instrumental thinking
  4. valence proportioning
  5. sensebreaking

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Step 1: Identifying the Issue

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. The process of perceiving particular information from the environment and attaching specific meanings to it is called ______.
  2. framing
  3. cognitive dissonance
  4. closure
  5. intuiting

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Step 1: Identifying the Issue

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ can cause individuals to ignore ethical considerations.
  2. Closing
  3. Framing
  4. Loop-holing
  5. Synergizing

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Step 1: Identifying the Issue

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The notion that information you already know may impair the ability to see the actual facts of a new situation is called ______ bias.
  2. confirmation
  3. attribution
  4. generalized
  5. task-specific

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Step 2: Getting the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Blaming of an individual rather than acknowledging a more systemic cause for a problem is referred to as ______ bias.
  2. confirmation
  3. attribution
  4. generalized
  5. task-specific

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Step 2: Getting the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In step______ of the weight-of-reasons approach, a person must figure out the various parties who have a stake in a decision, as well as the extent to which they will benefit or be harmed.
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 3
  5. 4

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Step 4: Assessing the Consequences

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. The law of ______ means that actions always have unanticipated effects, especially in complex, fast-moving situations.
  2. ethical dynamics
  3. unintended consequences
  4. ethical intentions
  5. ethical wrongdoing

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Step 4: Assessing the Consequences

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Step ______ of the weight-of-reasons approach involves crafting a course of action.
  2. 3
  3. 4
  4. 5
  5. 6

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Step 6: Taking a Course of Action

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. A critical, final step in applying the weight-of-reasons framework involves______.
  2. recognizing an ethical problem
  3. closing the loop
  4. developing a game plan
  5. speaking with stakeholders

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Step 8: Learning From Experience

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When using the the weight-of-reasons framework, it is important to ______.
  2. skip steps that aren’t important
  3. reorder the steps when possible
  4. cover all the steps
  5. add additional steps if possible

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Use the Framework Organically

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

Essay

 

  1. Discuss in detail the characteristics and components of ethical decisions.

Ans: Answer should contain discussion of decisions, ethical decisions, unstructured decisions, and dilemmas.

Learning Objective: 1.2: Describe what an ethical decision is.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethical Decisions and Ethical Dilemmas

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain why intuition must be supplemented by reason in making ethical choices.

Ans:Answer should contain explanation of how individuals may ignore rationality and rely on intuitions when determining what is right and wrong, such as the use of self-serving rationalizations and previous experiences.

Learning Objective: 1.4: State why intuition must be supplemented by reason in making ethical choices.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Intuition Versus Reasoning

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Define in detail the idea of “commonsense ethics.”

Ans: Common sense ethics means, knowing when to trust your intuitions and when to engage in reasoning,doing the best you can with the resources you have,coming up with quick fixes, and also over time developing long-term solutions that address underlying root causes.

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how the weight-of-reasons framework leads to addressing root causes and not just implementing quick fixes.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Understanding the Framework

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Discuss the tragic nature of ethical decision-making and provide some examples.

Ans: Answer should outline how making ethical decisions sometimes involves hard choices in which decision-makers apportion costs and benefits to different groups and individuals, with some persons being harmed.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Recognize the tragic nature of ethical decision-making: Someone may be hurt.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Someone May Be Hurt

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Contrast the terms sensebreaking and sensemaking.

Ans: Sensemaking is the process of identifying, interpreting, and acting upon information from the external environment, while sensebreaking involves recognizing that something unusual has happened and something may be amiss.

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Step 1: Identifying the Issue

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Define the term cognitive dissonance and provide some examples.

Ans: Cognitive dissonance is the recognition that perception doesn’t meet expectations for a situation leaving one feeling mentally uncomfortable; examples of cognitive dissonance will vary from student to student.

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Step 1: Identifying the Issue

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Identify and describe the types of biases that can harm “getting the facts” when making an ethical decision.

Ans: Confirmation bias is the notion that information a person already knows may impair the ability to see the actual facts of a new situation, and attribution bias involves the blaming of an individual rather than acknowledging a more systemic cause for a problem.

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Step 2: Getting the Facts

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain how you might use a table of pros and cons when making a particular ethical decision. Provide examples that relate to the ethical decision you highlight.

Ans: To evaluate the likely consequences of the options on stakeholders, you can prepare a table like Table 1-2, which depicts the pluses [+] and minuses [-] of each of the options on stakeholders. Students examples will vary.

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Weight of Reasons: A Table of Pros and Cons

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Outline some key questions you may ask yourself when clarifying your ethical principles.

Ans: Some possible answers include:

(a) Can I defend these principles to the company's board of directors?

(b) Can I explain them in court?

(c) Can I explain them to the media?

(d) Can I explain them to my fellow workers?

(e) Can I explain them to my family?

(f) As a consequence of following these principles, how will I feel about this decision a year from now?

(g) Would this decision seem right 20 years from now when someone writes my biography or a history of my organization?

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Step 5: Applying Principles

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss how the weight-of-reasons approach to decision-making should be used.

Ans: The approach works best when done iteratively, following a stream of consciousness and letting the process develop organically. Brainstorming the sequence of steps taken with a group (assuming a person can work with others) and moving from step-to-step in the framework before systematically organizing thoughts is beneficial. A person may also go back and rearrange impressions into a logical pattern.

Learning Objective: 1.6: Apply the weight-of-reasons framework for ethical decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Use the Framework Organically

Difficulty Level: Medium

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