Test Bank Juvenile Delinquency, 3rd Edition Clemens Bartollas

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Test Bank Juvenile Delinquency, 3rd Edition Clemens Bartollas

Juvenile Delinquency (Justice Series), 3e (Bartollas/Schmalleger)

Chapter 1   Adolescence and Delinquency

 

1.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) A law violation by a young person is considered an act of juvenile delinquency only if the behavior meets which of the following criteria?

  1. A) The act involved would be a criminal offense if it were committed by an adult.
  2. B) The young person charged with committing the act is below the age at which the criminal court traditionally assumes jurisdiction.
  3. C) The juvenile is charged with an offense that must be adjudicated in the juvenile court or the prosecution and the juvenile court judge exercise their discretion to lodge and retain jurisdiction in the juvenile court.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Compare how society treats adolescents today to how it handled them in the past.

Level:  Intermediate

 

2) By ________, every state but one had passed laws prohibiting the employment in industry of children under a certain age, generally 14.

  1. A) 1884
  2. B) 1914
  3. C) 1934
  4. D) 1954

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 4

Objective:  Compare how society treats adolescents today to how it handled them in the past.

Level:  Intermediate

 

3) The children's rights movement, which encompasses a spectrum of approaches, became popular in the 1970s as a means to compensate for ________.

  1. A) the facilitated development of personal identity
  2. B) an expedited search for a personal set of values
  3. C) young people's lack of rights
  4. D) the development of skills necessary for positive social interaction

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 4

Objective:  Compare how society treats adolescents today to how it handled them in the past.

Level:  Intermediate

 

 

4) The population of juveniles, according to a U.S. Census Bureau estimate, will increase ________ percent between 2000 and 2025.

  1. A) 10
  2. B) 14
  3. C) 24
  4. D) 30

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 5

Objective:  Give examples of high-risk behaviors that characterize contemporary adolescence.

Level:  Intermediate

5) Which of the following acts of adolescents would NOT be considered a high-risk behavior?

  1. A) break dancing
  2. B) drunken driving
  3. C) drug and alcohol abuse
  4. D) carrying of weapons

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 6

Objective:  Give examples of high-risk behaviors that characterize contemporary adolescence.

Level:  Intermediate

 

6) Which of the following behaviors is NOT a law violation when committed by a juvenile?

  1. A) curfew violations
  2. B) runaway behavior
  3. C) incorrigibility
  4. D) multiple body piercings

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 7

Objective:  Give examples of high-risk behaviors that characterize contemporary adolescence.

Level:  Basic

 

7) Behaviors that would NOT be offenses when engaged in by adults are called ________.

  1. A) victimless crimes
  2. B) delinquent behaviors
  3. C) serious offenses
  4. D) status offenses

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 7

Objective:  Give examples of high-risk behaviors that characterize contemporary adolescence.

Level:  Intermediate

 

 

8) Under parens patriae, the ________ assumed the parental role over juvenile lawbreakers.

  1. A) state
  2. B) parents
  3. C) teachers
  4. D) neighbors

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 7

Objective:  Explain what the term delinquency means in a contemporary context.

Level:  Basic

 

9) Juvenile court codes usually specific that the court has jurisdiction in relation to three categories of conditions. Which is NOT one of these categories of conditions?

  1. A) delinquency
  2. B) dependency
  3. C) criminality
  4. D) neglect

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 8

Objective:  Explain what the term delinquency means in a contemporary context.

Level:  Intermediate

10) In 41 states and the District of Columbia, persons under ________ years of age charged with a law violation are considered juveniles.

  1. A) 15
  2. B) 16
  3. C) 17
  4. D) 18

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 8

Objective:  Explain what the term delinquency means in a contemporary context.

Level:  Intermediate

 

11) The deinstitutionalization of status offenders movement refers to the ________.

  1. A) confinement of status offenders in secure detention facilities
  2. B) removal of status offenders from secure detention facilities
  3. C) power struggle between parents and status offenders
  4. D) discrimination against female status offenders

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Discuss status offenses, legal decisions about status offenders, and the characteristics of crossover youth.

Level:  Intermediate

 

 

12) Which of the following was NOT among the principal objectives of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974?

  1. A) promote deinstitutionalization of status offenders
  2. B) encourage elimination of the practice of jailing juveniles
  3. C) encourage community-based alternatives to juvenile detention
  4. D) promote the development of correctional facilities

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Discuss status offenses, legal decisions about status offenders, and the characteristics of crossover youth.

Level:  Difficult

 

13) Which of the following is NOT a term used to describe crossover youth?

  1. A) dually adjudicated youth
  2. B) cross-system cases
  3. C) human agency cases
  4. D) dual-jurisdiction cases

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 10

Objective:  Discuss status offenses, legal decisions about status offenders, and the characteristics of crossover youth.

Level:  Basic

14) In the early 1990s, which of the following became a major impetus for the development and spread of drug-trafficking street gangs across the United States?

  1. A) crack epidemic
  2. B) parental control
  3. C) deinstitutionalization of juveniles
  4. D) unemployment epidemic

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Intermediate

 

15) The "get-tough" attitude in the 1990s led to enacting of legislation in nearly every state changing the way juvenile delinquents were handled. Which of the following is NOT among the state initiatives in juvenile justice that continues in force today?

  1. A) expanded use of curfews
  2. B) creation of juvenile boot camps
  3. C) movement toward graduated sanctions
  4. D) banning of violence in video games

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Intermediate

 

 

16) At the individual level, one of the most important concepts in the area of delinquency prevention is ________. That is, juveniles are able to persevere in the face of difficulty and become productive citizens of their communities.

  1. A) stringency
  2. B) rigidity
  3. C) defeat
  4. D) resiliency

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Basic

 

17) Which of the following is NOT an issue that the Developmental Life-Course theory is concerned with?

  1. A) the development of offending and antisocial behavior
  2. B) the risk of offending at different ages
  3. C) the effects of life events on the course of a person's social and personal development
  4. D) the legal basis of juvenile court decisions

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 13

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Difficult

18) Which of the following themes examines risk factors that contribute to delinquent behavior and asks how such behavior affects subsequent life experiences?

  1. A) parens patriae
  2. B) legal context of delinquency
  3. C) deinstitutionalization of status offenders
  4. D) Developmental Life-Course theory

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 13

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Difficult

 

19) Which term recognizes that juveniles are influenced by social opportunities and structural constraints, and make personal choices from among the options that they believe they are facing?

  1. A) delinquency
  2. B) high-risk behavior
  3. C) human agency
  4. D) antisocial behavior

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 13

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Intermediate

 

 

20) The three themes in the study of delinquency are delinquency prevention, delinquency across the life course, and delinquency and ________.

  1. A) historical policy
  2. B) economic policy
  3. C) social policy
  4. D) legal policy

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 13

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Basic

 

21) ________ identifies appropriate methods to collect data, helps to identify concepts to be studied, tests ideas for their impact on the subject under study, analyzes related concepts, and suggests new directions for theorizing.

  1. A) Philosophy
  2. B) Theory
  3. C) Research
  4. D) Policy

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 14

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Basic

1.2   True/False Questions

 

1) Miller v. Alabama (2016) made retroactive the end of life without parole for those sentenced as juveniles.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 2

Objective:  Compare how society treats adolescents today to how it handled them in the past.

Level:  Intermediate

 

2) Adolescence is considered to be the years between ages 11 and 17.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Compare how society treats adolescents today to how it handled them in the past.

Level:  Intermediate

 

3) Until child labor laws were actually enforced, children as young as ages four and five worked in mines, mills, and factories.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 4

Objective:  Compare how society treats adolescents today to how it handled them in the past.

Level:  Intermediate

 

 

4) High-risk youths typically do not have educational and vocational skill deficits.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 5

Objective:  Give examples of high-risk behaviors that characterize contemporary adolescence.

Level:  Intermediate

 

5) The average American delinquent today is far more likely to commit a serious violent crime than to commit petty theft.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 7

Objective:  Give examples of high-risk behaviors that characterize contemporary adolescence.

Level:  Intermediate

 

6) Status offenses would be defined as criminal if adults committed them.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 7

Objective:  Give examples of high-risk behaviors that characterize contemporary adolescence.

Level:  Intermediate

 

7) Juvenile court codes exist in every state.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 7

Objective:  Explain what the term delinquency means in a contemporary context.

Level:  Basic

 

8) The juvenile court may intervene in cases involving dependency and neglect.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 8

Objective:  Explain what the term delinquency means in a contemporary context.

Level:  Intermediate

9) The age at which a youthful offender is no longer treated as a juvenile is consistent across the states.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 7

Objective:  Explain what the term delinquency means in a contemporary context.

Level:  Intermediate

 

10) Status offenders frequently come from single-parent homes and often engage in verbal and physical abuse directed toward the parent(s).

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Discuss status offenses, legal decisions about status offenders, and the characteristics of crossover youth.

Level:  Intermediate

 

 

11) The deinstitutionalization of status offenders has received considerable pushback in the past few decades.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Discuss status offenses, legal decisions about status offenders, and the characteristics of crossover youth.

Level:  Intermediate

 

12) Meda Chesney-Lind and Linda Pasko argue that the juvenile justice system discriminates against girls.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Discuss status offenses, legal decisions about status offenders, and the characteristics of crossover youth.

Level:  Intermediate

 

13) Public whippings and expulsion from the community were common punishments for chronic offenders during the Reform Agenda era.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Intermediate

 

14) The major purpose of the reform agenda of the late 1970s was to divert the handling of status offenses from a criminal to a noncriminal setting.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Intermediate

 

15) By the early 2000s, the use of guns had spread from individuals involved in drug transactions to larger numbers of young people, and the availability and use of guns, the spread of the drug market, and the growth of street gangs all contributed to a dramatic rise in murder rates among young people.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Intermediate

16) At the individual level, one of the most important concepts in the area of delinquency prevention is resiliency.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Intermediate

 

 

17) Delinquency prevention asks what can be done to improve the quality of young people's lives and provides ideas for effectively treating and controlling youth crime.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Intermediate

 

1.3   Fill in the Blank Questions

 

1) The life interval between childhood and adulthood, usually the period between the ages of twelve and eighteen years, is called ________.

Answer:  adolescence

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Compare how society treats adolescents today to how it handled them in the past.

Level:  Basic

 

2) An act committed by a minor that violates the penal code of the government with authority over the area in which the act occurs is called juvenile ________.

Answer:  delinquency

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Compare how society treats adolescents today to how it handled them in the past.

Level:  Basic

 

3) Of the 25 million adolescents in the United States, approximately one in ________ is at high risk for engaging in multiple problem behaviors.

Answer:  four

Page Ref: 6

Objective:  Give examples of high-risk behaviors that characterize contemporary adolescence.

Level:  Basic

 

4) Beginning in the late 1980s and extending throughout the 1990s, adolescents participated widely in youth ________.

Answer:  gangs

Page Ref: 7

Objective:  Give examples of high-risk behaviors that characterize contemporary adolescence.

Level:  Intermediate

 

5) Juvenile court codes specify the conditions under which states can ________ intervene in a juvenile's life.

Answer:  legitimately

Page Ref: 7

Objective:  Explain what the term delinquency means in a contemporary context.

Level:  Basic

 

6) Juvenile court codes usually specify that the court has jurisdiction in relation to three categories of conditions: delinquency, ________, and neglect.

Answer:  dependency

Page Ref: 7

Objective:  Explain what the term delinquency means in a contemporary context.

Level:  Basic

 

7) Generally speaking, status offenders, many of whom come from ________ homes, place the blame for their problems on parental figures in the home and believe that fulfilling their need for a warm, accepting, and loving relationship with their parents is not possible.

Answer:  single-parent

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Discuss status offenses, legal decisions about status offenders, and the characteristics of crossover youth.

Level:  Intermediate

 

8) The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDA) of 1974 served as an impetus for the ________ of status offenders.

Answer:  deinstitutionalization

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Discuss status offenses, legal decisions about status offenders, and the characteristics of crossover youth.

Level:  Difficult

 

9) The most severe form of treatment of juveniles is the belief that juveniles who commit serious crimes or continue to break the law are presumed to deserve punishment rather than treatment. These juveniles are punished more like ________ that juveniles.

Answer:  adults

Page Ref: 11-12

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Intermediate

 

10) Beginning in the 1980s and continuing through today, young people became increasingly involved in various forms of ________ crimes, or crimes committed because of a victim's racial or ethnic characteristics, or religious or gender preferences.

Answer:  hate

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Intermediate

 

11) The ________ of delinquency can be accomplished by effective social programs, or it may involve efforts to enhance the personal characteristics that shield young people from negative environmental influences as they are growing up.

Answer:  prevention

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Intermediate

 

12) Youth are generally considered ________ when they are able to rely on apparently innate characteristics to fend off or recover from life's misfortunes.

Answer:  resilient

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Intermediate

 

1.4   Matching Questions

 

Match each historical era of societal response to juvenile delinquency with its description.

 

  1. A) (late 1970s) The major purpose of this plan was to divert the handling of status offenses from a criminal to a noncriminal setting.
  2. B) (1990-2010) The "get tough" attitude toward violent juveniles led to a number of juvenile justice initiatives in the 1990s and extending to the twenty-first century that went beyond those implemented in the 1980s.
  3. C) (1980s) The major thrusts were to reassess the soft-line approach to minor offenders and status offenders and to "get tough" on serious and violent juvenile crime.
  4. D) (1967-1975) In several court decisions, the U.S. Supreme Court granted juveniles due process rights in the juvenile justice system.
  5. E) (1636-1823) The family was the primary means of social control of children; recalcitrant children then suffered public whippings, dunking (partial drowning), and the stocks.
  6. F) (1824-1898) Wayward children were placed in facilities intended to reform them.
  7. G) (2010 to present) Increased understanding of juvenile behavior resulting from studies in neurobiology and developmental psychology that recognized significant differences between the minds of juveniles and adults.
  8. H) (1899-1966) Created in Cook County, Illinois, and used parens patriae as a legal philosophy, this court handles all illegal behaviors among juveniles.

 

1) Colonial Period

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Difficult

 

2) House of Refuge

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Difficult

 

3) Juvenile Courts

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Difficult

 

4) Juvenile Rights

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Difficult

 

5) Reform Agenda

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Difficult

 

 

6) Social Control and Juvenile Crime

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Difficult

 

7) Delinquency and the Growing Fear of Crime

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Difficult

8) A New Understanding of Juvenile Behavior Emerges

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Difficult

 

Answers: 1) E 2) F 3) H 4) D 5) A 6) C 7) B 8) G

 

Match each theme of the text with its description.

 

  1. A) Examines risk factors that contribute to delinquent behavior and asks how such behavior affects subsequent life experiences.
  2. B) Asks what can be done to improve the quality of young people's lives and provides ideas for effectively treating and controlling youth crime.
  3. C) Can be accomplished by effective social programs, or it may involve efforts to enhance the personal characteristics that shield young people from negative environmental influences as they are growing up.

 

9) Delinquency prevention

Page Ref: 12-14

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Intermediate

 

10) Delinquency across the life course

Page Ref: 12-14

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Intermediate

 

11) Delinquency and social policy

Page Ref: 12-14

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Intermediate

 

Answers: 9) C 10) A 11) B

 

1.5   Essay Questions

 

1) What is a "youth culture" and what does it involve?

Answer:  The answer should include the following points:

  • Consists of the unique beliefs, behaviors, and symbols that represent young people in society.
  • A primary feature of youth culture is the incorporation of trends or fads. Youth culture has distinctive clothing styles, hairstyles, behaviors, footwear, electronic devices, and interests.
  • Vehicles such as cars, motor scooters, motorcycles, skateboards, and surfboards as well as personal electronic devices and video games have played central roles in the development of today's youth culture.
  • Body piercing often multiple piercings for both males and females in literally every part of the body, including the tongue, eyebrows, lips, cheeks, navel, genitals, and breasts and tattooing are widely found among some youth cultures today. Ritual scarification and 3D-art implants are popular, and so are stretching and cutting of the genitals, scrotal implants, transdermal implants, tooth art, and facial sculpture.
  • Adolescents have always been connected to their peers, but many are now connected at all times of the day, texting in class or messaging throughout the night. In addition to constant communication, adolescents are joining online groups or communities, posting numerous self-portraits (or selfies), and creating their own Facebook pages or Instagram messages.

Page Ref: 4-5

Objective:  Compare how society treats adolescents today to how it handled them in the past.

Level:  Intermediate

 

2) Identify the difficulties many high-risk youth often experience.

Answer:  The answer should include the following points:

High-risk youths often experience multiple difficulties: They are frequently socialized in economically stressed families and communities, more often than not have histories of physical abuse and sexual victimization, typically have educational and vocational skill deficits, and are prone to become involved in alcohol and other drug abuse and forms of delinquency. The more of these problem behaviors that are present, the more likely it is that a youth will become involved in socially undesirable behaviors.

Page Ref: 6

Objective:  Given examples of high-risk behaviors that characterize contemporary adolescence.

Level:  Intermediate

 

3) Discuss the three categories of juvenile behavior in which the juvenile court has jurisdiction

Answer:  The answer should include the following points:

  • Delinquency. The courts may intervene when a youth has been accused of committing an act that would be a misdemeanor or felony if committed by an adult. Second, the courts may intervene when a juvenile commits certain status offenses.
  • Dependency and Neglect. Third, the courts may intervene in cases involving dependency and neglect; for example, if a court determines that a child is being deprived of needed support and supervision, it may decide to remove the child form the home for his or her own protection.

Page Ref: 8

Objective:  Explain what the term delinquency means in a contemporary context.

Level:  Intermediate

 

4) Summarize the six arguments given for the removal of status offenders from the jurisdiction of the juvenile court.

Answer:  The answer should include the following points:

  • The lack of clarity of many status offender statutes makes them unconstitutionally vague in their construction.
  • Such laws, critics claim, are often discriminatory, especially with regard to gender.
  • Although status offenders have not committed a criminal act, they are frequently confined with chronic or hard-core offenders, in defiance of the federal DSO mandate.
  • The procedure of processing and confining status offenders is not in the child's best interest, and therefore violates the parens patriae principle that underlies the juvenile court system.
  • Some claim argue that formal intervention by the juvenile court into the lives of status offenders promotes rather than inhibits unlawful behavior by identifying the child as ʺbad.ʺ
  • It should be obvious that status offenders are a special class of youth who must be treated differently from delinquents in order to prevent them from becoming delinquents themselves.

Page Ref: 9-10

Objective:  Discuss status offenses, legal decisions about status offenders, and the characteristics of crossover youth.

Level:  Difficult

 

5) Several interrelated social trends have recently emerged that have influenced delinquency in U.S. society in rather dramatic ways. Discuss these trends and how they have influenced delinquency.

Answer:  The answer should include the following points:

In the mid-1980s, crack cocaine became widely available in urban areas. There was soon a large demand for this drug and this led to the recruitment of young people into the market to sell crack.

By 1990, the crack epidemic had become a major impetus for the development and spread of drug-trafficking street gangs across the nation. By the end of the 20th century, street gangs were found in nearly every city and in many smaller communities across the United States. One of the consequences of the illegal drug marketplace, to include heroin and methamphetamines, was that young people used guns to protect themselves from being robbed of the illegal substances they were carrying. Significantly, be the early 2000s, the use of guns had spread from individuals involved in drug transactions to larger numbers of young people, and the availability and use of guns, the spread of the drug market, and the growth of street gangs all contributed to a dramatic rise in murder rates among young people. Finally, beginning in the 1980s and continuing through today, young people became increasingly involved in various forms of hate crimes, or crimes committed because of a victim's racial or ethnic characteristics, or religious or gender preferences.

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Summarize the contemporary treatment of delinquents.

Level:  Intermediate

 

6) What are the four key elements of the Developmental Life-Course theory? Explain them in context of the theory.

Answer: 

  • The development of offending and antisocial behavior
  • Protective factors
  • The risk of offending at different ages
  • The effects of life events on the course of a person's social and personal development

DLC theory attempts to integrate what is known about the individual, family, school, peers, and the community with situation influences that may either encourage or discourage offending. It also integrates key elements of preexisting theories that attempt to explain delinquency. Finally, DLC holds that human development and aging are lifelong processes and that people are rational actors who make informed choses and they go through life. The choices that people make however can be influenced by turning points or life experiences that strengthen social ties.

Page Ref: 13

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Intermediate

 

1.6   Critical Thinking/Discussion

 

1) What factors do you think might propel a status offender into more severe kinds of offenses?

Answer:  Answers may include the following points:

  • They are frequently socialized in economically stressed families and communities.
  • More often than not have histories of physical abuse and sexual victimization.
  • Typically have educational and vocational skill deficits.
  • Are prone to become involved in alcohol and other drug abuse and forms of delinquency.

Page Ref: 6

Objective:  Give examples of high-risk behaviors that characterize contemporary adolescence.

Level:  Intermediate

 

2) A status offense is a nondelinquent/noncriminal offense; an offense that is illegal for underage persons but not for adults. Status offenses include curfew violations, incorrigibility, running away, truancy, and underage drinking. Why might underage persons commit these various offenses?

Answer:  Answers may include the following points:

  • Single-parent homes place the blame for their problems on parental figures in the home and believe that fulfilling their need for a warm, accepting, and loving relationship with their parents is not possible.
  • Parents often view status offenders as defiant, demanding, and obnoxious. Parents usually believe that they have no control over their children, who will not accept restrictions or limitations on their behavior, and a power struggle results. As a result, parents may call the police to intervene with their abusive or unmanageable children.
  • Status offenders tend to be disruptive, disrespectful, belligerent, emotionally withdrawn or explosive, and unfocused or unconcerned. Many are psychologically tested and are found to be hyperactive or to have attention deficit disorder.

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Explain what the term delinquency means in a contemporary context.

Level:  Intermediate

 

3) What is the relationship between theory and research?

Answer:  Answers may include the following points:

  • Each helps to guide and direct the other.
  • Research identifies appropriate methods to collect data, helps to identify concepts to be studied, tests ideas for their impact on the subject under study, analyzes related concepts, and suggests new directions for theory.
  • Theory points the way to new research, helps develop new concepts, builds interconnections among concepts, interprets old and new ideas, builds systems of thought, and leads the way to new social and theoretical conclusions.
  • Research collects and theory analyzes; research discovers and theory explains; research disproves and theory reorders.
  • Policy recommendations will be taken more seriously by policymakers if they are based on research findings that are inextricably bound to sound theory.

Page Ref: 14

Objective:  Summarize the three themes of this text.

Level:  Intermediate

 

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