Test Bank How Children Develop, 6th edition Robert S. Siegler

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Test Bank How Children Develop, 6th edition Robert S. Siegler

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Test Bank How Children Develop, 6th edition Robert S. Siegler


1. Recent research conducted by Ferguson (2015) and Furuya-Kanamori and Doi (2016) concluded what regarding the impact of playing violent video games on childhood and adolescent aggression?




2. A method for combining the results from independent studies to determine a general conclusion on the topic is known as




3. Which statement is NOT a general reason to learn about child development, as outlined in the text?




4. Research has determined that this brain area is involved in emotional reactions.




5. One main conclusion based on the Romanian adoption study is that




6. Which is a major group of contemporary philosophers and psychologists that argue for the importance and relevance of evolution in relation to human development?




7. Which group has stressed the general learning mechanisms that are thought to be possessed by infants?




8. Considering the research on preschoolers' ability to provide accurate testimony about past events, which piece of advice would be the MOST important for an interviewer to be told prior to interviewing a young child?




9. Romanian-born children who were adopted by British families _____ fared BEST in weight gain after adoption.




10. Which statement BEST characterizes the results of research on children from Romanian orphanages?




11. Of Aristotle, Locke, and Plato, which philosopher(s) believed that all knowledge comes from experience, meaning that infants are born without innate knowledge?




12. Which philosopher offered the argument that children should be provided with maximum freedom and no formal education prior to the age of reason at approximately age 12?




13. One of the earliest examples of research conducted for the benefit of children was




14. Who developed the baby biography?




15. Darwin completed a biographical sketch of his own son, demonstrating his interest in child development, in what was called




16. According to the text, which is NOT an aspect related to child development that has been influenced by Darwin's work on evolution?




17. Which is likely the first environmental influence on development that we encounter?




18. All demonstrate nature's influence on our development EXCEPT




19. Who did NOT propose a stage theory related to child development?




20. Which brain structure is particularly important for learning and memory?




21. The accumulation of disadvantages over years of development is referred to as




22. Stella has experienced poverty her entire life. Which is NOT an aspect related to cumulative risk that puts Stella at risk for hindered successful development?




23. When a child overcomes obstacles in development related to poverty or other negative experiences, he can be said to be _____, according to the text.




24. If a child is resilient, she is more likely to have all of these characteristics, compared to other children, EXCEPT




25. The emergence of theories such as those of Piaget and Freud in the early twentieth century reflected the




26. Freud developed the _____ development.




27. Which factor is NOT an enduring theme in the study of child development?




28. Which person is MOST likely to develop schizophrenia, based on current research findings?




29. The study of stable changes in gene expression that are mediated by the environment is referred to as




30. Evidence for the enduring epigenetic impact of early experiences and behaviors on development comes from what type of research?




31. What is the biochemical process that reduces expression of a variety of genes and is involved in regulating reactions to stress?




32. The relationship between nature and nurture on developmental outcomes can BEST be described by which statement?




33. Which example illustrates discontinuity in development?




34. Which theoretical perspective proposes that two interconnected brain areas, the hippocampus and the cortex, simultaneously encode new information during learning?




35. Research studies engaging in _____ designs often reveal that practices that are rare or nonexistent in one's own culture are common in other cultures.




36. In which country are infants expected to sleep in their own bed, separate from their parents, by 6 months of age?




37. Which child in the United States is MOST likely to live below the poverty line?




38. Which factor is NOT one identified by Scarr (1992) that can lead children from the same family to turn out very different from each other?




39. Which statement about epigenetics is TRUE?




40. Which factor is an example of how children shape their own development?




41. Crib speech is a(n)




42. Rachel is a 6-month-old who has recently learned to sit up on her own. Her mother places two toys in front of her: a soft yellow stuffed animal within her reach and a colorful rattle slightly out of her reach. Seeing both toys, Rachel chooses the one she finds more appealing to play with. Over time, choices such as these do NOT influence development of




43. Which scenario provides the BEST example of how children actively contribute to their own development?




44. Which statement about individuals' contributions to their own development is TRUE?




45. Stage theories regard development as




46. Which theorist developed one of the best known stage theories of cognitive development?




47. With which statement would stage theorists NOT agree?




48. Which view of changes in height would lead to a view that height development is smooth and continuous?




49. To examine whether children's cognitive development occurs in stages, Professor Blue observes four groups of children. Each child's performance on cognitive tasks is observed two or more times over a period of 2 years. Which group is MOST likely to lead Professor Blue to conclude that development occurs continuously?




50. Which statement BEST answers the question of whether development is fundamentally continuous or discontinuous?




51. Which activity is NOT a core component of effortful attention?




52. Neurotransmitters can BEST be described as




53. One study discussed in the text demonstrated that infants with a particular form of one of the genes influencing production of neurotransmitters associated with effortful attention had lower effortful attention than other infants when they also were exposed to poor parenting. What principle is demonstrated by this study?




54. The study in which 6-year-old children were presented with a 5-day training program designed to improve effortful attention demonstrated that experience can




55. Which factor is NOT considered part of the sociocultural context?




56. Which item would NOT be considered part of the sociocultural context involved in an American child's language development?




57. According to the text, differences between U.S. and Mayan childhood sleeping patterns are due to differences in




58. The term used for the social class measure based on income and education is




59. Which family group in the United States has the HIGHEST percentage of the population below the poverty line?




60. Which factor is the GREATEST obstacle to poor children's chances of successful development?




61. Which of Scarr's factors is BEST related to the theme of the active child?




62. Which item is NOT one of the four factors Scarr identified as involved in the differences among siblings?




63. One study discussed in the text demonstrated that the grades of children who were highly engaged in school changed in more positive directions than would have been predicted by genetic background or family environment alone. This finding is MOST supportive of the theory of




64. Which statement describes the results of research by Dweck on children's beliefs about intelligence?




65. In the research by Blackwell, Trzeniewski, and Dweck described in the text, researchers created an educational program for low-income middle school students. The children who showed the MOST substantial improvement in math grades were those children who initially believed that intelligence _____ and who were provided with information about how _____.




66. Which premise is at the foundation of the scientific method?




67. What is a hypothesis?




68. Which statement qualifies as a hypothesis?




69. Which basic step of the scientific method is unique to that method?




70. The term "reliability" does NOT refer to the




71. Dr. Stott is a researcher interested in examining the association between how humorous children are and their school achievement. Two research assistants go to children's homes and judge children as "not funny at all," "slightly funny," or "very funny." Upon comparison of the observers' judgments, it is apparent that the observers have a high level of disagreement as to children's humor level. This measure of humor level has poor




72. Test–retest reliability refers to the




73. The validity of a test refers to the




74. Dr. Jefferson is a psychologist interested in 4-year-old Shawn's knowledge of the differences between animals and vehicles. The psychologist gives Shawn a multiple-choice picture test in which he must write the letter of the correct answer on a separate piece of paper. However, Shawn has trouble identifying and writing some letters. On two separate occasions, Shawn receives the same score on the test. This method has _____ validity and _____ reliability.




75. To examine his hypothesis that children's creativity levels decrease with age, Dr. Leno asks children how many imaginary friends they have and considers their answers to be a measure of their creativity. A second researcher, Dr. Letterman, disagrees that the answers are a measure of creativity and instead believes that the number of imaginary friends a child has is an indicator of level of mental disturbance. Dr. Letterman believes Dr. Leno's measure of creativity has a problem with its




76. The internal validity of a measure involves the extent to which




77. To examine the effectiveness of empathy training on children's sharing behavior, 2 months of training are provided to 3-year-old children living in rural Georgia. Six months later, the children's sharing behaviors are measured and compared to their pre-training sharing behavior. Improvements are considered the result of the empathy training. Which factor is a potential source of internal invalidity?




78. The external validity of a measure involves the extent to which




79. Which item is a potential source of internal invalidity?




80. Professor Bryson is a researcher who asks children a series of predetermined questions about how much they like to play with their siblings. He is using




81. A researcher is interested in thoroughly exploring 8-year-old Jane's thoughts and feelings about living in poverty. The researcher's BEST option for obtaining this information would be




82. Which statement describes a potential disadvantage of the interview method?




83. To examine how children interact with their elementary school teachers on a daily basis, a researcher would probably use the _____ method.




84. Naturalistic observation would probably be the method of choice for a researcher interested in which topic?




85. In which data-gathering method do researchers try to remain unobtrusive?




86. Which statement about naturalistic observation is NOT true?




87. Which statement about the troubled homes in Patterson's study is NOT true?




88. Which statement expresses a disadvantage of naturalistic observation?




89. Structured observation would probably be the method of choice for a researcher interested in which topic?




90. Kochanska and her colleagues probably chose to study toddlers' compliance with their mothers' requests with the methodology they used because




91. Which statement does NOT express a benefit of structured observation?




92. Attributes that vary across individuals and situations are termed




93. The extent to which two variables are related is referred to as their




94. Professor Stetson would like to examine whether children who are high math achievers have better memories than do low math achievers. Her research should utilize




95. Variables X and Y are negatively correlated, indicating that as the level of X increases, the level of Y _____, and as the level of X decreases, the level of Y _____.




96. Variables A and B are positively correlated, indicating that as the level of A _____, the level of B _____.




97. A correlation of –1.00 indicates that




98. Variables U and W have a correlation of –0.86. If it is known that Keira has a low score on U, which statement would be the BEST prediction about her score on W?




99. A correlation coefficient of 0.00 indicates that as the level of one variable increases, the level of the other variable




100. Which expression is MOST likely to represent the correlation between age of child and reading speed among children who are able to read?




101. A town committee learns that there is a strong negative correlation between the number of inches of daily rainfall and the number of children who use the neighborhood playgrounds each day. If the committee were to conclude that high rainfall is caused by children not using the playground, which type of problem would MOST likely be occurring?




102. The possibility that the correlation between two variables may actually be the result of an additional unspecified attribute is referred to as the _____ problem.




103. Suppose a researcher found out that there was a strong positive correlation between the number of minutes parents spend reading to children and the number of minutes parents spend engaging in athletic activity with children. If the researcher concluded that engaging in high levels of athletic activity with children causes parents to read to them more often, which type of problem would MOST likely be occurring?




104. The text describes a study examining the link between sleeping with a nightlight in infancy and later developing nearsightedness. This study exhibited which type of problem?




105. Which research design allows researchers to infer cause-and-effect associations between variables?




106. Researchers would be LEAST likely to examine the effect of _____ on _____ with experimental design.




107. Which method is the BEST way to divide participants into groups for an experiment?




108. Dr. Schmidt is studying the effectiveness of a new reading program on minority children who have experienced an impoverished family background and low maternal involvement. She will separate children into two groups; one that gets the new reading program and one that uses the current reading program. She will also use random assignment to create her two groups. The groups created in this manner would NOT be comparable with regard to which characteristic?




109. Groups created through random assignment would NOT be comparable with regard to




110. Which statement BEST describes the value of random assignment in experimental designs?




111. A class of 3rd-grade children is split into two groups through random assignment. Group A is given training in a new game, and group B is not. Training in the new game is referred to as the _____ variable, and game-playing skill at the conclusion of the study is referred to as the _____ variable.




112. A class of 3rd-grade children is split into two groups through random assignment. Group A is given training in a new game, and group B is not. Group A is referred to as the _____ group, and group B is referred to as the _____ group.




113. To examine the effect of empathy training on teenagers' bullying behaviors, a researcher splits a group of high school students into two groups through random assignment. Group A is shown a movie about an interesting science experiment, and group B is shown a movie about students being harmed by bullies. Group A would be the _____ group, and group B would be the _____ group.




114. What was demonstrated by the study on toddlers' play behaviors in which the TV show Jeopardy! was being shown in the room while the children were playing?




115. Which statement is NOT part of the logic of experimental designs?




116. Which variable is LEAST likely to be an independent variable in an experiment?




117. A researcher is interested in examining whether offering children candy as an incentive to share will increase preschoolers' sharing behavior. A group of preschoolers is brought into the laboratory to play with some interesting toys. The preschoolers are split into two groups through random assignment. Group A is told that they will get candy each time they share, and group B is not told anything about candy or sharing. Results indicate that preschoolers in group A share more than do preschoolers in group B, and the researcher concludes that offering children candy for sharing caused the children in group A to share more. Which statement BEST describes a possible limitation of this study?




118. Which is the GREATEST limitation of laboratory experiments?




119. Which type of design compares the behavior of groups of children who are of different ages?




120. The study that examined the lying behavior of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds utilized which type of design?




121. A researcher is interested in the development of depression. She interviews children ages 5, 9, and 13 about their depressive symptoms. This is an example of which type of design?




122. A researcher would be MOST likely to use a cross-sectional design to examine which topic?




123. What do longitudinal designs do?




124. Longitudinal design would be appropriate to examine




125. Longitudinal designs are particularly useful for examining




126. A longitudinal design would be MOST useful for which research question?




127. Which statement about longitudinal design is TRUE?




128. Which statement about the study on the development of popularity discussed in the text is TRUE?




129. Researchers interested in understanding the process of change are MOST likely to use a _____ design.




130. A researcher would be MOST likely to use a microgenetic design to examine which topic?




131. Siegler and Jenkins's examination of the development of the counting-on strategy is an example of _____ design.




132. Which is NOT an ethical standard to which psychological researchers are expected to adhere?




133. Who bears the GREATEST responsibility for ensuring that children are unharmed when participating in psychological research?




134. A method that allows researchers to gather information from a large number of participants simultaneously by presenting them a uniform set of items is referred to as a(n)




135. Third-variable problems are an issue with which type of research design?




136. Which research design has a limitation regarding being used to study many variables of interest at the same time?




137. Which research design fails to provide data regarding change over time?




138. External validity is an issue in which research design, due to repeatedly testing the same children?






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