Test Bank For Methods In Psychological Research, 4th Edition Bryan J. Rooney

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Test Bank For Methods In Psychological Research, 4th Edition Bryan J. Rooney

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Test Bank For Methods In Psychological Research, 4th Edition Bryan J. Rooney

Chapter 1: Introduction to Research in Psychology

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

 

  1. “Bad things always happen in threes.” The source of this belief is BEST described as ______.
  2. tradition
  3. intuition
  4. authority
  5. reasoning

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Tradition or Tenacity: I Believe It Is True Because It Has Always Been True

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Hearing the same idea repeatedly ______.
  2. helps you to critically analyze it and realize its flaws
  3. is a strategy professors use to help you learn the class material
  4. increases the likelihood you will believe it
  5. is also known as subliminal suggestion

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Tradition or Tenacity: I Believe It Is True Because It Has Always Been True

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. “From the day we hired her, I had a sense she would be good for our company.” The source of this belief is BEST described as ______.
  2. intuition
  3. authority
  4. reasoning
  5. empiricism

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Intuition: I Believe It Is True Because I Feel It Is True

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. “I know that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction because the President said so.” The source of this belief is BEST described as ______.
  2. intuition
  3. authority
  4. reasoning
  5. empiricism

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Authority: I Believe It Is True Because an “Expert” Says It Is True

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. “I know that children benefit from listening to Mozart prenatally because I read it in a book.” The source of this belief is BEST described as ______.
  2. intuition
  3. authority
  4. reasoning
  5. empiricism

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Authority: I Believe It Is True Because an “Expert” Says It Is True

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. “I know that Bill will have higher levels of testosterone than Mary because it is generally known that men have higher testosterone levels than women and Bill is a man.” The source of this belief is BEST described as ______.
  2. tradition
  3. intuition
  4. authority
  5. reasoning

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Reasoning: I Believe It Is True Because It Is Logically Derived

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. “I know that girls are better at naming colors than boys because I conducted research that measured color naming in 200 second graders.” The source of this belief is BEST described as ______.
  2. intuition
  3. authority
  4. reasoning
  5. empiricism

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Empiricism: I Believe It Is True Because I Measured It

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Science is a way of knowing that combines ______ and ______.
  2. authority; reasoning
  3. authority; empiricism
  4. empiricism; reasoning
  5. tradition; empiricism

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Science

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In science, we use ______ to test hypotheses.
  2. reasoning
  3. empiricism
  4. authority
  5. intuition

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Psychology is considered BOTH art and science because ______.
  2. the effective practice of psychology is an art and the research of psychology is a science
  3. many psychologists use art therapy (an art) but some continue to use electroconvulsive shock therapy (a science)
  4. the discipline is too diverse to be contained in one area
  5. it is important for psychologists to balance the stress of doing laboratory science with some relaxing art

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Explain why psychology is a science and an art.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Psychology--Science and Art

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ is the ability to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported evidence.
  2. Scientific reasoning
  3. Critical thinking
  4. Tradition
  5. Prediction

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: List the steps of the critical thinking process.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ is NOT a characteristic of critical thinking.
  2. Asking questions
  3. Being cynical
  4. Tolerating uncertainty
  5. Being open-minded

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: List the steps of the critical thinking process.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ is NOT a characteristic of critical thinking.
  2. Defining problems objectively
  3. Examining the available evidence
  4. Avoiding oversimplification
  5. Demanding certainty

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: List the steps of the critical thinking process.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Why is critical thinking particularly relevant to psychology?
  2. General interest in human behavior makes psychology a fertile area for pseudoscience and quackery.
  3. More so than in other areas, psychology majors tend to be gullible.
  4. Psychological research tends to be less rigorous than other areas.
  5. Critical thinking is important in psychology because our theories often have many more assumptions than theories in the natural sciences.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: List the steps of the critical thinking process.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Popular psychology ______.
  2. requires individuals to be careful when evaluating claims and beliefs
  3. includes extensive, insightful, and well-supported literature ordinary people enjoy
  4. studies the mental and behavioral characteristics of popular individuals
  5. is a mature science that is concerned with description, prediction, and control

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: List the steps of the critical thinking process.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The objectives of science are to ______ a phenomenon.
  2. describe, explain, evaluate, and control
  3. define, characterize, evaluate, and popularize
  4. describe, explain, predict, and control
  5. describe, explain, predict, control, and popularize

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the objectives of science and create examples of each.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Objectives of Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The difference between a young science and a mature science is that ______.
  2. a young science is focused on describing its subject matter, whereas a mature science is focused on prediction and control
  3. a young science obtains ideas by tradition and intuition, whereas a mature science obtains ideas by reasoning and empiricism
  4. a young science uses basic research methods, whereas a mature science uses applied research methods
  5. a young science uses quantitative research, whereas a mature science uses qualitative research

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the objectives of science and create examples of each.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Objectives of Science

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The tenets of science are ______.
  2. determinism, empiricism, replicability, falsifiability, and parsimony
  3. definition, empiricism, replicability, falsifiability, and parsimony
  4. determinism, empiricism, control, falsifiability, and parsimony
  5. definition, empiricism, replicability, statistics, and parsimony

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the tenets of science and identify examples of each.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Tenets of Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ is NOT a tenet of science.
  2. Determinism
  3. Parsimony
  4. Empiricism
  5. Publication

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the tenets of science and identify examples of each.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Tenets of Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Of the tenets of science, that of ______ is MOST clearly violated in this statement: “I knew our marriage would be perfect because the Magic 8 Ball said so.”
  2. determinism
  3. empiricism
  4. replicability
  5. parsimony

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the tenets of science and identify examples of each.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Determinism

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Of the tenets of science, that of ______ is MOST clearly violated in this statement: “Our team lost because I forgot to wear my lucky sweater to the game.”
  2. determinism
  3. empiricism
  4. replicability
  5. falsifiability

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the tenets of science and identify examples of each.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Determinism

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Many years ago, a pair of researchers claimed to have discovered “cold fusion.” When researchers in other laboratories tried to repeat their experiment, they did not get the same results. Which tenet of science does the phenomenon of cold fusion demonstrate?
  2. determinism
  3. empiricism
  4. replicability
  5. parsimony

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the tenets of science and identify examples of each.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Replicability

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. We consider psychology to be a science because ______.
  2. the scientific method is used
  3. the research is often conducted in laboratories
  4. it has historically been placed with the sciences
  5. advanced degrees are required to enter the profession

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the tenets of science and identify examples of each.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Parsimony

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ is NOT among the steps of the scientific method described in the textbook.
  2. Generating a hypothesis
  3. Testing a hypothesis
  4. Calculating statistics
  5. Revising the hypothesis

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-6: Apply the steps of the scientific method to a problem.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which statement is true with respect to hypotheses and theories?
  2. A hypothesis is used to present an explanation of research findings.
  3. A theory is a formal statement of how concepts are related.
  4. A hypothesis is an explanation of how some part of the world works.
  5. A theory is the general category of ideas that is represented by our variables.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-7: Describe the difference between a theory, a concept, and a hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theories, Concepts, and Hypotheses

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ is NOT a reason to do research.
  2. To demonstrate a behavioral phenomenon
  3. To investigate the conditions influencing behavioral phenomena
  4. To improve our financial status
  5. To satisfy our curiosity

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-8: Discuss the various reasons why scientists do research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why We Do Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Research requires students to use ______ thinking.
  2. convergent
  3. divergent
  4. intuitive
  5. expansive

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-9: Describe various approaches to research and classify research examples.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Approaches to Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. You are interested in investigating why women are more likely than men to stay home from work after having a child. This is an example of ______ research.
  2. descriptive
  3. cross-sectional
  4. explanatory
  5. basic

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-9: Describe various approaches to research and classify research examples.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Descriptive Versus Explanatory Research

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Qualitative research ______.
  2. is used when we want to determine differences in amount of behavior
  3. is often used in the natural sciences
  4. often involves narrative descriptions
  5. typically involves the use of complex statistical designs

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-9: Describe various approaches to research and classify research examples.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Quantitative Versus Qualitative Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ research describes differences in the type or kind of behavior that is observed.
  2. Quantitative
  3. Explanatory
  4. Longitudinal
  5. Qualitative

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-9: Describe various approaches to research and classify research examples.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Quantitative Versus Qualitative Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The distinction between basic and applied research ______.
  2. depends on the goals of the researcher
  3. is meaningless and trivial
  4. is usually ignored by research funding agencies
  5. depends on the cost of the equipment used

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-9: Describe various approaches to research and classify research examples.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Basic Versus Applied Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The cohort effect ______.
  2. is often a problem in laboratory research
  3. is often a problem in field research
  4. is not a problem in cross-sectional research
  5. can be a confounding influence in cross-sectional research

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-9: Describe various approaches to research and classify research examples.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cross-Sectional Versus Longitudinal Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Field research is to laboratory research as ______ is to ______.
  2. high control; low control
  3. low artificiality; high artificiality
  4. low control; high control
  5. high artificiality; low artificiality

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-9: Describe various approaches to research and classify research examples.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Field Versus Laboratory Research

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In field research, there is ______ artificiality and ______ generalizability.
  2. high; high
  3. low; low
  4. low; high
  5. high; low

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-9: Describe various approaches to research and classify research examples.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Field Versus Laboratory Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to the textbook, after you have selected a research topic and formed a hypothesis, you must determine ______.
  2. how large your sample should be
  3. your research budget
  4. what you are going to manipulate and measure
  5. how much time you have to complete the research project

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-10: List the steps in planning and doing research and generate a research topic from available sources.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Generating Testable Hypotheses

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

True/False

  1. When a person believes something because they feel like it is true, we call it intuition.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Intuition: I Believe It Is True Because I Feel It Is True

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When a person believes something because it happened to them, we call this empiricism.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Personal Experience: I Believe It Is True Because I Experienced It

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. We can adequately investigate topics like "Is there a soul?" and "Is there an afterlife" using scientific methods.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The popular press often dramatizes or overgeneralizes research findings.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: List the steps of the critical thinking process.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Skepticism is a healthy reluctance to accept new information without sufficient evidence.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: List the steps of the critical thinking process.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The goals of science are to describe, explain, predict, and control some events.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the objectives of science and create examples of each.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Objectives of Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Falsifiability is a doctrine of belief that states that events have natural causes.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the tenets of science and identify examples of each.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Falsifiability

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A hypothesis is a prediction that is often deduced from a theory.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-7: Learning Objective: 1-7: Describe the difference between a theory, a concept, and a hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theories, Concepts, and Hypotheses

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The focus of descriptive research is to answer "why" questions.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-9: Describe various approaches to research and classify research examples.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Descriptive Versus Explanatory Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The major distinction between field and laboratory research is a difference in control.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-9: Describe various approaches to research and classify research examples.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Field Versus Laboratory Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Short Answer

  1. List and briefly define three of the common sources of belief identified in the text.

Ans: Tradition--belief based on historical acceptance; intuition--belief based on feelings; authority--belief based on “expert” claim; reasoning--belief based on logic; empiricism--belief based on observation; and science--belief based on an interaction between empiricism and reasoning.

Learning Objective: 1-1: List and describe common sources of belief and identify the likely source of example beliefs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Acquiring Knowledge About the World

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Clarissa is a senior psychology student. Her professors describe her as a critical thinker. List five things that Clarissa might do as a critical thinker.

Ans: Clarissa is likely to ask questions, objectively define problems, examine the available evidence, assess assumptions and biases, Avoid emotional reasoning, separate facts from opinion, avoid oversimplifying, consider alternative explanations, tolerate uncertainty and maintain an air of skepticism.

Learning Objective: 1-3: List the steps of the critical thinking process.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. List the four objectives of science.

Ans: Description, explanation, prediction, and control.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the objectives of science and create examples of each.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Objectives of Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Briefly define three of the tenets of science.

Ans: Determinism--events have natural causes; empiricism--claims must be based on observations; replicability--findings must be repeatable; falsifiability--hypotheses must be refutable through research; and parsimony--explanations should account for the most data with the fewest assumptions.

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the tenets of science and identify examples of each.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Tenets of Science
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Distinguish between descriptive and explanatory research and between quantitative and qualitative research.

Ans: Descriptive researchers observe phenomena and describe them. Explanatory research involves trying to explain why those phenomena occur the way they do. Quantitative research investigates differences in amount of behavior, whereas qualitative research focuses more on differences in kind of behavior.

Learning Objective: 1-9: Describe various approaches to research and classify research examples.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Quantitative Versus Qualitative Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

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