Test Bank Corrections 3rd Edition by Leanne Alarid

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Test Bank Corrections 3rd Edition by Leanne Alarid

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Test Bank Corrections 3rd Edition by Leanne Alarid

Corrections (Justice Series), 3e (Alarid/Reichel)

Chapter 1   An Evidence-Based Approach to Corrections

 

1.1   Multiple Choice

 

1) Which of the following is NOT one of the main decisions points for prosecutors?

  1. A) Deciding whether to arrest a suspect.
  2. B) Initial court screening.
  3. C) Determining whether to charge a suspect.
  4. D) Recommending to the judge a sentence or case disposition for convicted offenders.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Basic

 

2) Preadjudication diversion

  1. A) is typically offered to persons charged with their second or third felony.
  2. B) occurs after formal sentencing.
  3. C) allows the defendant to be supervised in the community before pleading guilty.
  4. D) is granted by the prosecutor.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Basic

 

3) How long does the average criminal trial last?

  1. A) 3 to 6 hours.
  2. B) less than a week.
  3. C) 2-3 weeks.
  4. D) 1 month.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Intermediate

 

 

4) Which program type depends on correctional resources available in the community to assist the offender in seeking help and abiding by certain conditions?

  1. A) Community corrections.
  2. B) Institutional corrections.
  3. C) Local jail.
  4. D) Fixed fines.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 6

Objective:  Compare and contrast institutional and community-based corrections.

Level:  Basic

5) Compared with other countries, the United States incarceration rate is

  1. A) lower than most other countries.
  2. B) lower than most third world countries but higher than most industrialized countries.
  3. C) tied with other Western industrialized countries.
  4. D) significantly higher than that for most other countries.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 6

Objective:  Explain the effect that rising incarceration rates between 1970 and 2010 had on racial and economic disparity.

Level:  Basic

 

6) Repeated and cumulative media exposure is thought to contribute to insecurity and fear of crime according to

  1. A) social learning theory.
  2. B) social interaction theory.
  3. C) cultivation theory.
  4. D) crime control theory.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 8

Objective:  Analyze the relationships among mass media, public opinion, and the making of correctional policy.

Level:  Intermediate

 

7) Crime policy in the United States are more punitive than crime policies in other Western countries for each of the following reasons EXCEPT

  1. A) U.S. judges and prosecutors are career civil servants who receive special training.
  2. B) crime policy in the United States is more decentralized.
  3. C) crime policy in the United States, even at the state level, is reliant on federal funding.
  4. D) sentencing and release decisions in the United States are micromanaged by legislators.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Analyze the relationships among mass media, public opinion, and the making of correctional policy.

Level:  Intermediate

 

 

8) To be considered of high quality, a program should

  1. A) have a sample size between 10 and 30 people.
  2. B) show significant differences between treatment and control groups.
  3. C) be measured as valid but not necessarily reliable.
  4. D) be measured as reliable but not necessarily valid.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Characterize the meaning of evidence-based practice and explain how it can improve the correctional system.

Level:  Difficult

9) The more effective treatment interventions are those that

  1. A) are focused on either males or females specifically.
  2. B) designed to help both men and women simultaneously.
  3. C) ignore offender demographics and concentrate instead on offender age.
  4. D) are designed for adult women over age 35.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Characterize the meaning of evidence-based practice and explain how it can improve the correctional system.

Level:  Difficult

 

10) Intensive treatment for lower-risk offenders

  1. A) has the greatest likelihood of success.
  2. B) can be effective as long as long as the offender is joined in the treatment by his/her pro-criminal associates.
  3. C) is appropriate only for lower-risk women offenders.
  4. D) can actually increase the likelihood of recidivism.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Characterize the meaning of evidence-based practice and explain how it can improve the correctional system.

Level:  Basic

 

11) When considering how staff members such as probation officers or community corrections counselors relate to offenders

  1. A) the use of negative reinforcement must be frequent.
  2. B) being friendly is more important than having any particular training.
  3. C) the quality of the interaction is more important than the quantity.
  4. D) it is important that meetings be held at least three times per week.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Characterize the meaning of evidence-based practice and explain how it can improve the correctional system.

Level:  Basic

 

 

1.2   True-False

 

1) Since 2011, prison populations in the United States have increased dramatically after having consistently declined for 40 years.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 2

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Intermediate

 

2) The police enforce the law, keep social order, and preserve public safety for their particular jurisdiction.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Basic

3) Weak or inadequate evidence is not a good reason for dismissing a case during initial screening since evidence is unimportant until trial.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Basic

 

4) The pretrial release decision is made prior to arrest so that defendants who qualify can be released and supervised in the community before their first court date.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Basic

 

5) If an offender on diversion supervision does not comply with the court-stipulated conditions, he or she is sentenced but there is no formal record of conviction.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Difficult

 

 

6) The continuum of sanctions concept refers to the idea that sentencing is complex and involves trying to meet more than one sentencing goal.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 5

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Basic

 

7) The war on drugs has had a pronounced effect on the federal prison system, and greatly reduced the number of incarcerated women.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 6

Objective:  Explain the effect that rising incarceration rates between 1970 and 2010 had on racial and economic disparity.

Level:  Basic

 

8) Most research suggests that the more punitive states tend also to have lower rates of poverty, fewer persons who are African-American, and more generous welfare payments for impoverished persons.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 8

Objective:  Analyze the relationships among mass media, public opinion, and the making of correctional policy.

Level:  Basic

9) Crime policies in the United States appear to be more punitive than in other Western countries because the United States relies more on rational decision making.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Analyze the relationships among mass media, public opinion, and the making of correctional policy.

Level:  Intermediate

 

10) The academic side of evidence-based practice refers to the specific application of the most effective techniques.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Characterize the meaning of evidence-based practice and explain how it can improve the correctional system.

Level:  Basic

 

 

11) When a correctional program has two or more independent and rigorous studies showing a significant difference between the treatment group and the control group, the programs is said to "work" and is judged effective.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 10

Objective:  Characterize the meaning of evidence-based practice and explain how it can improve the correctional system.

Level:  Intermediate

 

12) Because the likelihood of success is increased, a basic principle of evidence-based practice is that treatment interventions should be focused on low-risk clients.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 12

Objective:  Characterize the meaning of evidence-based practice and explain how it can improve the correctional system.

Level:  Basic

 

1.3   Fill in the Blank

 

1) A city police department enforces the law within that city's geographic boundaries and those boundaries identify the police department's ________.

Answer:  jurisdiction

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Basic

 

2) A prosecutor will likely ________ a case if the evidence is weak or inadequately linked to a defendant for a particular crime.

Answer:  dismiss

Page Ref: 3

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Intermediate

3) One way to look at the continuum of sanctions is that some of them occur in the ________ and some occur inside a correctional or treatment facility.

Answer:  community

Page Ref: 6

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Basic

 

 

4) ________ corrections house offenders in an institutional environment, apart from their community, friends, and family.

Answer:  Institutional

Page Ref: 6

Objective:  Compare and contrast institutional and community-based corrections.

Level:  Basic

 

5) The "mean world syndrome" is more correctly called ________ theory, and disputes the suggestion that violence in the media causes individuals to become violent.

Answer:  cultivation

Page Ref: 8

Objective:  Analyze the relationships among mass media, public opinion, and the making of correctional policy.

Level:  Intermediate

 

6) The ________ side of evidence-based practice is about researchers carefully designing methodologically strong program evaluations to determine what works, what is promising, and what does not work.

Answer:  academic

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Characterize the meaning of evidence-based practice and explain how it can improve the correctional system.

Level:  Basic

 

7) The question "Does it work?" identifies one part of Evidence-Based Practices and a concern with "Applying the ________" identifies the other part.

Answer:  techniques

Page Ref: 9

Objective:  Characterize the meaning of evidence-based practice and explain how it can improve the correctional system.

Level:  Basic

 

8) Applying evidence-based practice techniques in corrections begins with a valid ________ instrument to measure the risk the offender poses and the problem areas that should be emphasized.

Answer:  assessment

Page Ref: 11

Objective:  Characterize the meaning of evidence-based practice and explain how it can improve the correctional system.

Level:  Basic

 

1.4   Matching

 

Match the following terms with their meanings.

 

  1. A) Two or more independent and rigorous studies show a significant difference between the treatment group and the control group.
  2. B) At least one high-quality or rigorous study shows a program to be effective.
  3. C) Programs depend on correctional resources available in the community.
  4. D) Correctional interventions for which there is consistent and solid scientific evidence showing that they work to meet the intended outcomes.
  5. E) Offenders are housed apart from their community, friends, and family.

 

1) Correctional program that is "promising"

Page Ref: 6, 10

Objective:  Compare and contrast institutional and community-based corrections.

Level:  Basic

 

2) Correctional program that "works"

Page Ref: 6, 10

Objective:  Compare and contrast institutional and community-based corrections.

Level:  Basic

 

3) Evidence-based practice

Page Ref: 6, 10

Objective:  Compare and contrast institutional and community-based corrections.

Level:  Basic

 

4) Institutional corrections

Page Ref: 6, 10

Objective:  Compare and contrast institutional and community-based corrections.

Level:  Basic

 

5) Community corrections

Page Ref: 6, 10

Objective:  Compare and contrast institutional and community-based corrections.

Level:  Basic

 

Answers: 1) B 2) A 3) D 4) E 5) C

 

1.5   Essay

 

1) Explain what is meant by the phrase "continuum of sanctions."

Answer:  Must include reference to the sentencing options available (either by law or for the judge to select) for each individual offender. More complete answers will also mention examples at each end of the continuum and/or will note that judges may combine options to suit individual offender's case.

Page Ref: 5-6

Objective:  Describe how corrections is part of the criminal justice system that is dependent on decisions made earlier in the process by the police and the courts.

Level:  Intermediate

 

2) What explanations have been offered for why Latino and African-American people have a disproportionately high representation in arrest and incarceration rates?

Answer:  Answer should include (1) reference to the possibility that police may target people of a certain race or ethnic group (e.g., the "driving while black" phenomenon), (2) that young African-American males may engage in more violent felony offenses and continue offending behavior for a longer duration, and (3) the war on drugs has worsened racial disparity.

Page Ref: 6-7

Objective:  Explain the effect that rising incarceration rates between 1970 and 2010 had on racial and economic disparity.

Level:  Intermediate

 

3) Although reducing recidivism is an important goal for correctional programs, Evidence-based Practice allows for other ways to measure whether a program or practice works. What are at least three such measures?

Answer:  At least three of these four should be mentioned: (1) Offender change in thinking patterns, (2) Increased number of drug-free days, (3) Increased number of days offender is working or employed while on supervision, and (4) more effective matching of risk and needs with supervision levels.

Page Ref: 9-10

Objective:  Characterize the meaning of evidence-based practice and explain how it can improve the correctional system.

Level:  Intermediate

 

1.6   Critical Thinking

 

1) The philosophy behind community corrections assumes that most offenders have made poor decisions along the way, but their need to retain responsibility and/or change overrides their threat to public safety and therefore they do not require incarceration. What are the weak points of this assumption? Is community corrections still a good idea even if the assumption is wrong?

Answer:  Will vary but should address the idea of offending being the result of poor decisions (i.e., offending is rational) and whether taking responsibility or changing one's behavior can be accomplished in prison or only when at liberty in the community.

Page Ref: 6

Objective:  Compare and contrast institutional and community-based corrections.

Level:  Intermediate

2) What are some negative consequences of media coverage of crime and criminal trials? What changes—that don't violate free press protections—are possible to how the media cover crime and criminal trials?

Answer:  Answers will vary but should note how media reports highlight the most horrific crimes and the most high profile trials and create a public perception that violence is random and frequent. Possible changes could link to the amount of information about the crime, trial, and sentence that is made public.

Page Ref: 8

Objective:  Analyze the relationships among mass media, public opinion, and the making of correctional policy.

Level:  Intermediate

 

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