Test Bank Abnormal Psychology 11th Edition by Ronald J. Comer

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Test Bank Abnormal Psychology 11th Edition by Ronald J. Comer

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Test Bank Abnormal Psychology 11th Edition by Ronald J. Comer

1. A person who systematically gathers information so as to describe, predict, and explain abnormality is called a clinical:

 

a. 

mentalist.

 

b. 

legalist.

 

c. 

scientist.

 

d. 

practitioner.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

2. If a person wants a career focused on detecting, assessing, and treating abnormal patterns of functioning, that person should look into becoming a clinical:

 

a. 

practitioner.

 

b. 

researcher.

 

c. 

historian.

 

d. 

statistician.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

3. Which statement is the MOST accurate conclusion about the current understanding of abnormal psychology?

 

a. 

No single definition of abnormality has won total acceptance.

 

b. 

Although abnormality is a well-defined concept, no consensus about treatment exists.

 

c. 

We have not advanced much beyond the demonology era.

 

d. 

Both the nature of abnormality and the course of treatment are well understood.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

4. Commonly accepted features of abnormality include deviance, distress, dysfunction, and:

 

a. 

danger.

 

b. 

docility.

 

c. 

delusions.

 

d. 

deference.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

5. The MOST accurate summary of the field of abnormal psychology at the present time is that clinical psychologists generally:

 

a. 

accept one definition of abnormality and practice one form of treatment.

 

b. 

do not accept one definition of abnormality but practice one form of treatment.

 

c. 

accept one definition of abnormality but practice more than one form of treatment.

 

d. 

do not accept one definition of abnormality and practice more than one form of treatment.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

6. The term _____ has long been used to describe psychological abnormality. It dates back to the 1200s.

 

a. 

unbalanced

 

b. 

unstable

 

c. 

disturbed

 

d. 

deviant

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

7. Anna feels paralyzed by depression and anxiety. When she is able to sleep, her dreams are full of nightmares. If we learn that Anna is a refugee from the civil war in Syria:

 

a. 

we can better understand her abnormal emotional state.

 

b. 

we know that her condition will improve on its own over time.

 

c. 

we can assume her reactions are normal within her culture of origin.

 

d. 

what we judge to be abnormal is not her condition but her situation.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

8. When a person puts themselves in danger, this behavior may not be psychologically abnormal. When dangerous behavior is abnormal, it is usually accompanied by:

 

a. 

a desire to harm or to frighten others.

 

b. 

diminished understanding of observed facts.

 

c. 

distress or dysfunction.

 

d. 

anger, anxiety, and apprehension.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

9. Using the four Ds to define abnormal behavior:

 

a. 

allows us to create diagnoses that are clear-cut and not debatable.

 

b. 

allows us to eliminate those who are merely eccentric.

 

c. 

allows us to include those who experience no distress.

 

d. 

is still often vague and subjective.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

10. The stated and unstated rules a society establishes for proper conduct are referred to as:

 

a. 

norms.

 

b. 

culture.

 

c. 

morality.

 

d. 

conventions.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

11. The history, values, institutions, habits, skills, technology, and arts of a society make up that society’s:

 

a. 

laws.

 

b. 

norms.

 

c. 

culture.

 

d. 

conventions.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

12. Behavior that violates legal norms is BEST described as:

 

a. 

deviant and criminal.

 

b. 

distressful and criminal.

 

c. 

deviant and psychopathological.

 

d. 

distressful and psychopathological.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

13. A school-age child is disrespectful and rude to her mother at a family outing. The MOST accurate description of this behavior is:

 

a. 

deviant.

 

b. 

criminal.

 

c. 

dangerous.

 

d. 

psychopathological.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

14. Deviant behavior is behavior that:

 

a. 

is illegal.

 

b. 

violates the society’s norms.

 

c. 

is dangerous to self or others.

 

d. 

causes dysfunction in the individual’s life.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

15. Aggressive behavior would NOT be viewed as abnormal in a:

 

a. 

society that values independence.

 

b. 

culture that emphasizes competitiveness.

 

c. 

family that has experienced a traumatic event.

 

d. 

person who has exhibited this behavior since early childhood.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

16. Which depressed person would be the LEAST likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder because of the specific circumstances present?

 

a. 

someone whose mother was depressed

 

b. 

someone whose community was recently destroyed by a hurricane

 

c. 

someone who was experiencing a chemical brain imbalance

 

d. 

someone who also had an alcohol use disorder

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

17. If a person experienced anxiety or depression following a significant natural disaster, we would say that the person was:

 

a. 

suffering from a mental illness.

 

b. 

deviant but not dangerous.

 

c. 

exhibiting a typical reaction.

 

d. 

statistically deviant.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

18. Which of these individuals would be MOST likely to be classified as exhibiting abnormal behavior?

 

a. 

a person who experiences grief immediately after losing her job and then her house

 

b. 

a person who is nervous about shopping alone for weeks after being attacked by a mugger

 

c. 

a person who always washes his hands immediately after returning home from grocery shopping

 

d. 

a person who engages in multiple checking rituals each day and consequently is unable to hold down a job

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

19. Which statement about deviant behavior is TRUE?

 

a. 

What is defined as deviant can change over time.

 

b. 

What is considered deviant behavior is the same across all cultures.

 

c. 

Deviant behavior is a precursor to psychologically abnormal behavior.

 

d. 

People who engage in deviant behavior are always unaware that their behavior is deviant.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

20. Morgan hears voices that others do not but is not distressed by them. This illustrates that:

 

a. 

distress must always be used to determine abnormality.

 

b. 

behavior that is not really dangerous can never be considered abnormal.

 

c. 

distress does not have to be present for a person’s behavior to be considered abnormal.

 

d. 

behavior that is not distressful is not abnormal.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

21. People who engage in frenetic, manic activity may not experience distress. Their behavior is:

 

a. 

nevertheless considered abnormal.

 

b. 

not abnormal because abnormality requires distress.

 

c. 

illegal but not abnormal.

 

d. 

no longer considered abnormal but was considered abnormal in the past.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

22. Which statement about distress is TRUE?

 

a. 

Distress is a subjective experience.

 

b. 

Distress is always considered abnormal.

 

c. 

Distress is more common in women than in men.

 

d. 

Distress is always characterized overt, observable signs.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

23. An individual has a 9-to-5 job. However, this person seldom gets up early enough to be at work on time and expresses great distress over this behavior. This individual’s behavior would be considered abnormal because it is:

 

a. 

disturbed.

 

b. 

deviant.

 

c. 

dysfunctional.

 

d. 

dangerous.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

24. Which aspect of the definition of abnormality includes the inability to care for oneself and work productively?

 

a. 

distress

 

b. 

deviance

 

c. 

dysfunction

 

d. 

danger to self or others

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

25. Which person would NOT be considered abnormal, despite the fact that the person’s behavior is dysfunctional?

 

a. 

someone who is too confused to drive safely

 

b. 

someone who parties so much that he or she cannot go to class

 

c. 

someone who goes on a hunger strike to protest social injustice

 

d. 

someone who cannot stay alone for even one night

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

26. Just a few decades ago, a woman’s love for racecar driving would have been considered abnormal. This statement illustrates that:

 

a. 

abnormal thinking centers on fear.

 

b. 

abnormality can be situational.

 

c. 

everyone is a little eccentric.

 

d. 

women are labeled as abnormal more frequently than are men.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

27. When behavior prevents a person from participating in ordinary social interactions, that behavior is said to be:

 

a. 

deviant.

 

b. 

dangerous.

 

c. 

distressing.

 

d. 

dysfunctional.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

28. A person who is having suicidal thoughts and can see no reason for living BEST fits which definition of abnormality?

 

a. 

deviance

 

b. 

distress

 

c. 

danger

 

d. 

dysfunction

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

29. A Secret Service agent steps in front of the president of the United States, prepared to be killed or injured if the president’s safety is threatened. Psychologically speaking, the Secret Service agent’s behavior is:

 

a. 

distressing to the agent and abnormal.

 

b. 

dangerous for the agent but not abnormal.

 

c. 

deviant but not abnormal.

 

d. 

dysfunctional and abnormal.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

30. Research shows that danger to self or others is found in:

 

a. 

a minority of cases of abnormal functioning.

 

b. 

no cases of abnormal functioning.

 

c. 

all cases of abnormal functioning.

 

d. 

most but not all cases of abnormal functioning.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

31. Despite popular misconceptions, most people with psychological problems are not:

 

a. 

dysfunctional.

 

b. 

dangerous.

 

c. 

distressed.

 

d. 

deviant.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

32. According to Thomas Szasz’s views, the psychological conditions that some call mental illness are really:

 

a. 

coping strategies.

 

b. 

problems in living.

 

c. 

myths people tell themselves.

 

d. 

biological disorders.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

33. A researcher spends 15 hours or more each day conducting experiments or doing library reading and recording observations on color-coded index cards. This person lives alone in the country but doesn’t interfere with others’ lives. The BEST description of the researcher’s behavior is that it is:

 

a. 

eccentric.

 

b. 

abnormal.

 

c. 

dangerous.

 

d. 

dysfunctional.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

34. College students who drink so much that it interferes with their lives, health, and academic careers are often not diagnosed as engaging in abnormal behavior because:

 

a. 

the behavior is not illegal.

 

b. 

they are just considered eccentric.

 

c. 

they don’t harm anyone but themselves.

 

d. 

drinking is considered part of college culture.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

35. Tran Van Hay is the world record holder in hair length. He and other eccentrics are usually not considered to be experiencing a mental illness because:

 

a. 

they are dangerous only to others, not to themselves.

 

b. 

while they are distressed by their behavior, others are not.

 

c. 

their behavior conforms to cultural norms.

 

d. 

they freely choose and enjoy their behavior.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

36. Researcher David Weeks has estimated that perhaps 1 person in ________ is “a classic, full-time eccentric.”

 

a. 

500

 

b. 

1,000

 

c. 

5,000

 

d. 

10,000

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

37. Which is NOT a characteristic of eccentrics noted by researchers in the field?

 

a. 

disinterest in others’ opinions

 

b. 

unhappiness or discontentedness

 

c. 

mischievous sense of humor

 

d. 

poor spelling skills

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

38. Studies show that eccentrics are more likely than individuals with mental disorders to say:

 

a. 

“I feel like my behavior has been thrust on me.”

 

b. 

“I'm different, and I like it.”

 

c. 

“I am in a lot of pain, and I suffer a great deal.”

 

d. 

“I wish I were not so unique.”

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

39. According to Jerome Frank, all forms of therapy have three essential features: a sufferer who seeks relief, a trained and socially accepted healer, and a(n):

 

a. 

clinical diagnosis.

 

b. 

period of remission.

 

c. 

acceptance of a higher power.

 

d. 

series of contacts between the sufferer and the healer.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

40. Arvind is feeling overwhelmed at work and has been having anxiety episodes for a few weeks. Acting on the advice of a friend, Arvind takes a vacation and feels less distress. Is this an example of therapy?

 

a. 

Yes, a person in distress took action and felt relief.

 

b. 

Yes, a person sought relief, obtained advice, and acted upon that advice.

 

c. 

No, there is no trained healer in this scenario.

 

d. 

No, the sufferer felt some relief, but there is no mention of the episodes resolving the problem permanently.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

41. Which statement BEST defines treatment?

 

a. 

It is a procedure that cures an illness.

 

b. 

It is any process that provides relief to a sufferer.

 

c. 

It is a process that aids the person in developing functional coping skills.

 

d. 

It is a procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

42. A theorist who sees abnormality as a problem in living usually refers to those seeking help with problems in living as:

 

a. 

pupils.

 

b. 

patients.

 

c. 

trainees.

 

d. 

clients.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

43. A theorist who views therapists as teachers of more functional behavior and thought is MOST likely to view abnormality as a(n):

 

a. 

illness.

 

b. 

spiritual issue.

 

c. 

problem in living.

 

d. 

developmental disorder.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

44. It is thought that people in prehistoric societies believed abnormal behavior resulted from:

 

a. 

advancing age.

 

b. 

a person not having a soul.

 

c. 

evil spirits that invaded the body and mind.

 

d. 

a state of being disconnected from the Earth and nature.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

45. The ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull is called:

 

a. 

exorcism.

 

b. 

shaman.

 

c. 

couvade.

 

d. 

trephination.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

46. Ancient societies commonly treated abnormal behavior by:

 

a. 

committing the affected persons to asylums.

 

b. 

providing moral treatment.

 

c. 

performing an exorcism.

 

d. 

changing the diet.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

47. A person seeking help for a psychological abnormality is whipped and then starved, in the hope that evil spirits will be driven from the person’s body. This form of treatment is called:

 

a. 

melancholia.

 

b. 

exorcism.

 

c. 

tarantism.

 

d. 

lycanthropy.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

48. A person being treated by a shaman would MOST likely be undergoing:

 

a. 

psychoanalysis.

 

b. 

a tarantella.

 

c. 

community-based treatment.

 

d. 

an exorcism.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

49. Hippocrates believed that treatment for mental disorders should involve:

 

a. 

releasing evil spirits trapped in the brain.

 

b. 

bringing the four body humors back into balance.

 

c. 

punishing the body for its sins.

 

d. 

giving control over to a higher power.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

50. Hippocrates’ contribution to the development of understanding mental illness was the view that such conditions were the result of:

 

a. 

stress.

 

b. 

natural causes.

 

c. 

brain pathology.

 

d. 

spiritual deviations.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

51. Hippocrates thought that abnormal behavior resulted from an imbalance in the four humors, one of which was:

 

a. 

water.

 

b. 

lymph gland fluid.

 

c. 

phlegm.

 

d. 

cerebrospinal fluid.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

52. Hippocrates attempted to treat mental disorders by:

 

a. 

hypnotizing patients.

 

b. 

chaining patients to walls.

 

c. 

correcting underlying physical pathology.

 

d. 

encouraging patients to speak about past traumas.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

53. Luther experiences unshakable sadness. His friends have stopped trying to cheer him up because nothing works. An ancient Greek physician would have labeled his condition:

 

a. 

mania.

 

b. 

hysteria.

 

c. 

delusions.

 

d. 

melancholia.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

54. Which approach was LEAST likely to be used by an ancient Greek physician to treat someone believed to be suffering from an imbalance of the humors?

 

a. 

exercise

 

b. 

lobotomy

 

c. 

bloodletting

 

d. 

a change in diet

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

55. In the Middle Ages, outbreaks of tarantism were associated with people’s belief that they:

 

a. 

were possessed by wolves or other animals.

 

b. 

suffered from an excess of yellow bile.

 

c. 

had been bitten by spiders.

 

d. 

were possessed by evil spirits.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

56. In the Middle Ages, the model of mental illness that MOST people believed in was the:

 

a. 

moral model.

 

b. 

medical model.

 

c. 

psychogenic model.

 

d. 

demonology model.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

57. The Middle Ages were a time of great stress and anxiety for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:

 

a. 

war.

 

b. 

urban uprisings.

 

c. 

plagues.

 

d. 

the decline of religion.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

58. The Middle Ages condition of mass madness referred to a large group of people who:

 

a. 

believed that God does not exist.

 

b. 

had borderline personality disorder.

 

c. 

shared delusions and hallucinations.

 

d. 

engaged in violent criminal acts against others.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

59. Those MOST often in charge of treating abnormality in the Middle Ages in Europe were:

 

a. 

physicians.

 

b. 

nobility.

 

c. 

peasants.

 

d. 

clergy.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

60. Toward the end of the Middle Ages, cities began to flourish. How did this help foster a shift away from demonology?

 

a. 

City officials made it illegal to teach demonology.

 

b. 

Government officials took over care for the mentally ill.

 

c. 

Government officials began to treat the mentally ill as criminals.

 

d. 

The mentally ill were run out of cities and left to take care of themselves.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

61. The individual considered to be the founder of the modern study of psychopathology is:

 

a. 

Hippocrates.

 

b. 

Johann Weyer.

 

c. 

Dorothea Dix.

 

d. 

Emil Kraepelin.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

62. Johann Weyer was a physician in the:

 

a. 

1200s.

 

b. 

1500s.

 

c. 

1700s.

 

d. 

1800s.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

63. In the fifteenth century, pilgrims in Europe who sought “psychic healing” would have been MOST likely to go to:

 

a. 

Bethlehem Hospital in London.

 

b. 

Gheel, Belgium.

 

c. 

La Bicêtre in Paris.

 

d. 

Athens, Greece.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

64. The textbook authors describe the treatment of mental illness in the early 1600s as a forerunner to community mental health programs because:

 

a. 

local residents provided housing, food, and companionship to the mentally ill.

 

b. 

asylums were created to provide long-term care for those persons with mental illness.

 

c. 

government officials enacted laws to protect the rights of those persons with mental illness.

 

d. 

those persons receiving care for mental illness were required to “give back” in the form of community service.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

65. In the early asylums, treatment for mental illness began with the intention to provide:

 

a. 

harsh treatment.

 

b. 

good care.

 

c. 

religious therapies.

 

d. 

psychogenic therapy.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

66. In many areas in the mid- and late 1500s, asylums such as Bethlehem Hospital in London became:

 

a. 

shrines.

 

b. 

tourist attractions.

 

c. 

sheltered workshops.

 

d. 

centers of moral treatment.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

67. What is the most famous characteristic of Bethlehem Hospital, founded in London in 1547?

 

a. 

Popularly called “Bedlam,” it came to represent deplorable conditions for patients.

 

b. 

It was the first asylum founded by Hippocrates.

 

c. 

It was founded by Henry VIII as a place to house his numerous ex-wives.

 

d. 

It was the first asylum where the moral treatment of patients was practiced.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

68. The asylums of the 1500s were originally:

 

a. 

churches and parishes.

 

b. 

privately owned homes.

 

c. 

hospitals and monasteries.

 

d. 

prisons and government offices.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

69. Why did many of the asylums in the 1500s became virtual prisons over time?

 

a. 

overcrowding

 

b. 

food shortages during this period

 

c. 

research linking mental illness with crime

 

d. 

public outcry over the dangers of mental illness

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

70. Who brought the reforms of moral therapy to northern England?

 

a. 

John Dix

 

b. 

Joseph Gall

 

c. 

William Tuke

 

d. 

Benjamin Rush

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

71. The basis for moral treatment of asylum patients was the belief that:

 

a. 

mental problems had a biological basis.

 

b. 

demonology was a cause of mental illness.

 

c. 

mental illness should be treated humanely and with respect.

 

d. 

the cause of mental illness was immoral behavior.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

72. Who brought the reforms of moral therapy to the United States?

 

a. 

John Dix

 

b. 

Joseph Gall

 

c. 

William Tuke

 

d. 

Benjamin Rush

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

73. The American schoolteacher who lobbied state legislatures for laws to mandate humane treatment of people with mental disorders was:

 

a. 

William Tuke.

 

b. 

Dorothea Dix.

 

c. 

Clifford Beers.

 

d. 

Benjamin Rush.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

74. A condition that people in the Middle Ages included in the general term mass madness was:

 

a. 

leprosy.

 

b. 

epilepsy.

 

c. 

lycanthropy.

 

d. 

melancholia.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

75. Tarantism and lycanthropy are examples of:

 

a. 

exorcism.

 

b. 

mass madness.

 

c. 

physical pathology causing mental illness.

 

d. 

disorders that were treated with trephination.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

76. St. Vitus’ dance, characterized by people suddenly going into convulsions, jumping around, and dancing, was also known as:

 

a. 

lycanthropy.

 

b. 

melancholia.

 

c. 

phlegmatism.

 

d. 

tarantism.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

77. Which development was part of the legacy of Dorothea Dix?

 

a. 

deinstitutionalization

 

b. 

state mental hospitals

 

c. 

federal prisons

 

d. 

privatization of mental hospitals

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

78. Which was NOT a factor in the decline in the use of moral treatment and the rise in the use of custodial care in mental hospitals at the end of the twentieth century?

 

a. 

the total lack of success of moral treatment

 

b. 

funding and staffing shortages

 

c. 

prejudice against poor, immigrant patients in hospitals

 

d. 

the assumption that all patients could be fully cured with moral treatment

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

79. The moral treatment movement rapidly declined in the late nineteenth century because:

 

a. 

prejudice against those with mental disorders decreased.

 

b. 

fewer and fewer people were being sent to mental hospitals.

 

c. 

all patients needing treatment had to be helped.

 

d. 

hospitals became underfunded and overcrowded.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

80. One factor that contributed to the decline of moral therapy was:

 

a. 

it did not work for everyone.

 

b. 

it was shown to be completely ineffective.

 

c. 

too few patients were hospitalized.

 

d. 

psychogenic drugs replaced it.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

81. In the early years of the twentieth century, the moral treatment movement:

 

a. 

was gathering momentum.

 

b. 

was quietly gaining scientific footing.

 

c. 

had ground to halt.

 

d. 

was attracting renewed interest.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

82. Hippocrates’ model of mental illness can be described as:

 

a. 

psychiatric.

 

b. 

somatogenic.

 

c. 

psychogenic.

 

d. 

supernatural.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

83. The fact that some people in the advanced stages of AIDS experience neurological damage that results in psychological abnormality supports which type of perspective about abnormal psychological functioning?

 

a. 

somatogenic

 

b. 

psychogenic

 

c. 

moral

 

d. 

deterministic

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

84. The discovery of the link between general paresis and syphilis was made by:

 

a. 

Benjamin Rush.

 

b. 

Emil Kraepelin.

 

c. 

Fritz Schaudinn

 

d. 

Richard von Krafft-Ebing.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

85. The finding that syphilis causes general paresis is important because it supports the idea that:

 

a. 

mental patients should be deinstitutionalized.

 

b. 

organic factors can cause mental illness.

 

c. 

antibiotics cannot cure viral diseases.

 

d. 

physicians should be the practitioners treating mental illnesses.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

86. For those who hold the somatogenic view of mental illness, the best treatment setting for those with mental disorders would be a:

 

a. 

community center.

 

b. 

spa and retreat center.

 

c. 

counselor’s office.

 

d. 

hospital.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

87. Which statement LEAST supports the somatogenic view of abnormal behavior?

 

a. 

Hypnotism has helped people give up smoking.

 

b. 

Alcoholism tends to run in families.

 

c. 

People with Lyme disease often have psychological symptoms.

 

d. 

Most people with depression are helped with medication.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

88. In the first half of the 1900s, biological treatments for mental illness:

 

a. 

largely failed.

 

b. 

were highly successful.

 

c. 

were not evaluated for effectiveness.

 

d. 

frequently worsened patients’ conditions.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

89. Physicians in the early to mid-1900s tried all of the following medical (biological) treatments for mental illness, EXCEPT:

 

a. 

tooth extraction.

 

b. 

hydrotherapy.

 

c. 

tonsillectomy.

 

d. 

trephination.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

90. An initial negative consequence of the somatogenic perspective on abnormality was that:

 

a. 

physicians began overdiagnosing people with mental illness.

 

b. 

individuals with mental illness were often treated in a medical hospital.

 

c. 

researchers did not explore other possible causes and treatments for mental illness.

 

d. 

people interpreted this perspective to mean that mental illness was always passed on to offspring.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

91. Eugenics had as its goal sterilization of people with mental disorders, a policy based on the idea that mentally ill people:

 

a. 

could not provide a good environment for their children.

 

b. 

were mentally defective (that is, developmentally delayed).

 

c. 

reproduced at a rate higher than that of the general population.

 

d. 

should not be allowed to pass on their defective genes.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

92. The somatogenic treatment for mental illness that seems to have been MOST successful was the use of:

 

a. 

psychosurgery.

 

b. 

psychoanalysis.

 

c. 

various medications.

 

d. 

lobotomy.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

93. Which event in the 1950s led to improvements in biological treatments for mental disorders?

 

a. 

discovery of psychotropic medications

 

b. 

development of advanced neurosurgical techniques

 

c. 

development of standardized screening tests for mental illness

 

d. 

improved understanding of the electrical system of the human body

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

94. A theorist who believes that psychological factors are the primary causes of abnormal functioning adheres to the _____ perspective.

 

a. 

Hippocratic

 

b. 

somatogenic

 

c. 

psychogenic

 

d. 

demonologic

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

95. Syphilis is to the somatogenic approach as _____ is to the psychogenic approach.

 

a. 

eugenics

 

b. 

tarantism

 

c. 

trephinism

 

d. 

hypnotism

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

96. Eugenics sterilization reflects the _____ perspective on abnormality.

 

a. 

somatogenic

 

b. 

psychoanalytic

 

c. 

cultural

 

d. 

managed care

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

97. Friedrich Anton Mesmer became famous—or infamous—for his work with patients suffering from bodily problems with no physical basis. His patients’ disorders are termed:

 

a. 

somatogenic.

 

b. 

hysterical.

 

c. 

phlegmatic.

 

d. 

bilious.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

98. An otherwise normal person under the influence of hypnotic suggestion is made to bark, sit, and fetch like a dog. The occurrence of these abnormal behaviors lends support to which explanation for abnormality?

 

a. 

psychogenic

 

b. 

somatogenic

 

c. 

parthenogenic

 

d. 

schizophrenogenic

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

99. Which perspective was supported by the discovery that the symptoms of hysteria (e.g., mysterious paralysis) could be induced by hypnosis?

 

a. 

psychogenic

 

b. 

somatogenic

 

c. 

demonological

 

d. 

moral

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

100. In what way did the experiments performed by Bernheim and Liébault provide support for the psychogenic perspective of abnormality?

 

a. 

Using hypnosis, they could produce artificial symptoms such as blindness in healthy subjects.

 

b. 

Using small amounts of electrical current, they could induce false psychological problems in healthy subjects.

 

c. 

Using biofeedback systems, they could reduce anxiety symptoms in subjects.

 

d. 

Using guided imagery, they could cure patients with a variety of psychological disorders.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

101. The early psychogenic treatment that was advocated by Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud was:

 

a. 

prayer.

 

b. 

bloodletting.

 

c. 

hypnotism.

 

d. 

trephining.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

102. Freud believed that all functioning, normal and abnormal, originates from:

 

a. 

one’s underlying biological makeup.

 

b. 

unconscious psychological processes.

 

c. 

the internal battle between good and evil.

 

d. 

conscious internal drives and moral external forces.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

103. Acquiring insight about unconscious psychological processes is a feature of:

 

a. 

moral therapy.

 

b. 

psychoanalysis.

 

c. 

psychogenic therapy.

 

d. 

all psychological therapy.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

104. Psychoanalysis was developed as a form of what is now known as:

 

a. 

moral therapy.

 

b. 

outpatient therapy.

 

c. 

behavioral therapy.

 

d. 

somatogenic therapy.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

105. Psychoanalysis, as Freud developed it, was a form of what we now would call:

 

a. 

mesmerism.

 

b. 

outpatient therapy.

 

c. 

community psychology.

 

d. 

Kraepelinism.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

106. Which patient would be MOST likely to benefit from psychoanalytic treatment?

 

a. 

someone who needs to make profound behavioral changes very quickly

 

b. 

someone who has difficulty expressing ideas and feelings verbally

 

c. 

someone who is insightful and thinks clearly

 

d. 

someone who is severely disturbed and in a mental hospital

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

107. Which statement BEST describes the role of religion with regard to treatment of mental illness?

 

a. 

Those who are religious reject nonspiritual means of treatment.

 

b. 

Religious institutions were among the first to provide treatment for the mentally ill.

 

c. 

Clergy have consistently advocated against scientific explanations for mental illness.

 

d. 

Those who devoutly adhere to their religion believe in supernatural causes of mental illness.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

108. Surveys have found that 43 percent of people today believe that mental illness is caused by:

 

a. 

sinful behavior.

 

b. 

lack of willpower.

 

c. 

lack of self-discipline.

 

d. 

something people bring on themselves.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

109. If a person’s primary symptom was excessive worry, the psychotropic drug MOST likely to be prescribed for that person would be an:

 

a. 

antipsychotic.

 

b. 

antidepressant.

 

c. 

antibiotic.

 

d. 

antianxiety medication.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

110. People with severe mental illnesses are LESS likely to be _____ than they were 50 years ago.

 

a. 

medicated with psychotropic drugs

 

b. 

hospitalized in mental institutions

 

c. 

homeless or in prison

 

d. 

treated in outpatient facilities

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

111. Which statement BEST reflects the impact of deinstitutionalization?

 

a. 

Most people with severe disturbances are receiving treatment.

 

b. 

Many people with severe disturbances are in jail or on the street.

 

c. 

Care is now consistent, and there is no shuttling back and forth through different levels of care.

 

d. 

Communities have been able to pick up the care of those with severe disturbances and provide effective treatment for most all of them.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

112. A medical researcher develops a drug that decreases symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. This drug would be classified as:

 

a. 

psychogenic.

 

b. 

somatogenic.

 

c. 

psychotropic.

 

d. 

somatotropic.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

113. Drugs designed to decrease extremely confused and distorted thinking are termed:

 

a. 

antidepressants.

 

b. 

antianxiety medications.

 

c. 

mood stabilizers.

 

d. 

antipsychotics.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

114. Drugs that alleviate the symptoms of mental dysfunction by affecting the brain are called:

 

a. 

psychedelics.

 

b. 

antineurotics.

 

c. 

psychotropics.

 

d. 

psychophysiologicals.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

115. Tanner is confused and usually thinks that he is a superhero. If his psychiatrist ordered medication, it would MOST likely be a(n):

 

a. 

stimulant drug.

 

b. 

antianxiety drug.

 

c. 

antipsychotic drug.

 

d. 

antidepressant drug.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

116. Jena is experiencing sadness, lack of energy, and low self-worth. The condition is chronic and severe. If her psychiatrist prescribed medication, it would likely be a(n):

 

a. 

stimulant drug.

 

b. 

antianxiety drug.

 

c. 

antipsychotic drug.

 

d. 

antidepressant drug.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

117. Luna is taking a psychotropic medication. Which condition does she MOST likely have?

 

a. 

mood disorder

 

b. 

age-related disorder

 

c. 

developmental disorder

 

d. 

physical abnormality

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

118. Compared with the number of patients hospitalized in U.S. mental hospitals in the 1950s, the number of hospitalized patients today is:

 

a. 

significantly less.

 

b. 

slightly less.

 

c. 

slightly more.

 

d. 

significantly more.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

119. One cause of the increase in individuals experiencing homelessness in recent decades has been the:

 

a. 

policy of deinstitutionalization.

 

b. 

decrease in the effectiveness of medications.

 

c. 

decrease in the use of private psychotherapy.

 

d. 

move to the community mental health approach.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

120. In the United States today, one is MOST likely to find a severely ill mental patient:

 

a. 

in a mental hospital.

 

b. 

on the street or in jail.

 

c. 

receiving drug counseling in a shelter.

 

d. 

in private therapy paid for by the state.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

121. In the United States today, prison and jail inmates suffering from mental disturbance number:

 

a. 

just under 100,000.

 

b. 

about 150,000.

 

c. 

about 300,000.

 

d. 

over 400,000.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

122. Hospitalized patients with mental illness who show symptom improvement while taking medications are likely to be discharged. Studies have shown that many of these patients:

 

a. 

fail to make lasting recoveries.

 

b. 

ultimately become a danger to others.

 

c. 

are rehospitalized in less than six months.

 

d. 

commit suicide after years of inadequate treatment.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

123. The approach to therapy for mental illness in which a person pays a psychotherapist for services is called:

 

a. 

sociological therapy.

 

b. 

the medical approach.

 

c. 

private psychotherapy.

 

d. 

the community mental health approach.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

124. Which statement BEST reflects the current care for people with less severe disturbances?

 

a. 

Many are treated by generalists who specialize in a number of different types of disorders.

 

b. 

Private insurance companies are likely to cover outpatient treatment.

 

c. 

It is difficult to find treatment for someone experiencing a “problem in living.”

 

d. 

Private psychotherapy is available only to the wealthy.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

125. Problems with marital, family, peer, work, school, or community relationships would be MOST similar to:

 

a. 

the sorts of problems Freud treated.

 

b. 

other problems in living.

 

c. 

problems treated in specialized treatment centers.

 

d. 

other problems treated with antipsychotics.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

126. Researchers have shown that in a typical year in the United States, approximately _____ percent of people with psychological disorders receive clinical treatment.

 

a. 

15

 

b. 

30

 

c. 

45

 

d. 

60

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

127. Suicide prevention, substance abuse treatment, and eating disorder clinics are MOST similar to which kind of market?

 

a. 

Whole Foods, a large market that offers many different types of foods

 

b. 

Sweet Cupcakes, a store that specializes in only one type of food

 

c. 

Corner Market, a mom-and-pop store that carries rather old-fashioned foods

 

d. 

New York Deli, a high-end market that serves only the wealthy

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

128. According to surveys, about what proportion of adults in the United States receive psychological therapy for milder problems of living, such as work-related problems?

 

a. 

1 in 10

 

b. 

2 in 10

 

c. 

4 in 10

 

d. 

6 in 10

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

129. A significant change in the type of care offered now compared to the era when Freud was practicing is that:

 

a. 

fewer patients are suffering from anxiety and depression.

 

b. 

fewer patients receive outpatient treatment.

 

c. 

people are more likely to receive treatment for problems in living.

 

d. 

there are fewer specialized programs focused on treating only one type of problem.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

130. Efforts to address the needs of children who are at risk for developing mental disorders (babies of teenage mothers, children of those with severe mental disorders) are categorized as:

 

a. 

positive psychology.

 

b. 

psychoanalysis.

 

c. 

eco-anxiety treatment.

 

d. 

preventive.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

131. A focus of many community mental health programs is:

 

a. 

prevention.

 

b. 

isolation.

 

c. 

spiritual guidance.

 

d. 

experimental treatments.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

132. Which pair of words BEST describes the current emphasis in mental health?

 

a. 

prevention and positive psychology

 

b. 

promotion and public psychology

 

c. 

perfection and primary psychology

 

d. 

people and professional psychology

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

133. If a university had a first-year program designed to ease the transition from high school to college and to decrease the dropout rates, that program would have elements MOST similar to:

 

a. 

mental health prevention programs.

 

b. 

positive psychology programs.

 

c. 

deinstitutionalization programs.

 

d. 

outpatient therapy.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

134. Efforts to help people develop personally meaningful activities and healthy relationships are a part of:

 

a. 

eco-anxiety treatment.

 

b. 

a somatogenic approach to treatment.

 

c. 

the clinical practice of positive psychology.

 

d. 

an eccentric’s level of creativity.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

135. A positive psychologist would MOST likely focus on:

 

a. 

identifying the underlying biological cause of mental illness.

 

b. 

teaching coping skills that can be used to manage stress.

 

c. 

identifying the unconscious internal processes driving behavior.

 

d. 

using biofeedback to control physiological responses to stressors.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

136. A psychologist focuses on optimism, wisdom, happiness, and interpersonal skill. This psychologist is MOST likely a:

 

a. 

psychoanalyst.

 

b. 

positive psychologist.

 

c. 

community mental health worker.

 

d. 

rehabilitation specialist.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

137. If a university had a program designed to help students achieve their full potential, physically, educationally, and spiritually, that program would have elements MOST similar to:

 

a. 

mental health prevention programs.

 

b. 

positive psychology programs.

 

c. 

deinstitutionalization programs.

 

d. 

outpatient therapy.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

138. The study of positive feelings, traits, and abilities is called:

 

a. 

the health-centered approach.

 

b. 

wellness theory.

 

c. 

happiness theory.

 

d. 

positive psychology.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

139. According to some researchers, almost half of one’s level of happiness is due to:

 

a. 

genetic factors.

 

b. 

life events.

 

c. 

the quality of one's relationships.

 

d. 

one's value system.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

140. At which age do people tend to be the happiest?

 

a. 

teenage years

 

b. 

young adulthood

 

c. 

middle age

 

d. 

old age

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

141. In which profession do people tend to be less happy than in the others?

 

a. 

clergy

 

b. 

firefighters

 

c. 

service station attendants

 

d. 

special-education teachers

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

142. On average, how much daily face-to-face social contact with others makes people the happiest?

 

a. 

1 hour

 

b. 

3 hours

 

c. 

6 hours

 

d. 

9 hours

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

143. Immigration trends and differences in birth rates among minority groups in the United States have caused psychological treatment to become more:

 

a. 

hospital focused.

 

b. 

multicultural.

 

c. 

positive.

 

d. 

dependent on the use of medications.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

144. Members of racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States are expected to make up 52 percent of the population in the year:

 

a. 

2035.

 

b. 

2045.

 

c. 

2055.

 

d. 

2065.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

145. Which feature is NOT common in managed care programs?

 

a. 

limited pool of practitioners for patients to choose from

 

b. 

preapproval for treatment by the insurance company

 

c. 

ongoing reviews and assessments

 

d. 

patient choice in number of therapy sessions

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

146. About one in ________ Americans has public-supplemented health insurance, such as Medicare or military insurance.

 

a. 

three

 

b. 

four

 

c. 

five

 

d. 

six

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

147. “What the #%*$!! is going on? The insurance company says I have to stop my anger management program now!” The client who says this is MOST likely voicing concern about a:

 

a. 

managed care program.

 

b. 

private psychotherapist.

 

c. 

community mental health agency.

 

d. 

sociocultural resource center.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

148. Critics of managed care programs for mental health services state that these programs:

 

a. 

promote long-term dependence on therapists.

 

b. 

do not support drug therapy as a form of treatment.

 

c. 

focus too heavily on psychogenic causes of abnormalities.

 

d. 

favor treatments whose results are typically shorter lasting.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

149. Compared with physical disorders, insurance reimbursement for treatment of mental disorders prior to enactment of the Affordable Care Act was generally:

 

a. 

nonexistent.

 

b. 

lower.

 

c. 

about the same.

 

d. 

higher.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

150. Parity laws for insurance coverage of mental health treatment mandate that:

 

a. 

physicians and psychologists must have the same level of education.

 

b. 

coverage for mental and physical problems must be reimbursed equally.

 

c. 

the number of sessions allowed for treatment of mental and physical treatment must be equal.

 

d. 

patients must be allowed to choose the therapist they want for treatment.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

151. _____ designate(s) mental health care one of 10 types of essential health benefits that all insurers must provide.

 

a. 

Laws that have been on the books for decades

 

b. 

Parity legislation passed by the U.S. Congress in 2008

 

c. 

The Affordable Care Act of 2014

 

d. 

Legislation has repeatedly been proposed to

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

152. Which statement about the various viewpoints of clinical psychology is TRUE?

 

a. 

Various perspectives coexist, and they often conflict and compete with one another.

 

b. 

Since the late 1950s, the biological perspective is the primary perspective taught in medical schools.

 

c. 

Although many perspectives exist, the psychoanalytic perspective remains the dominant perspective in the field.

 

d. 

Among the various perspectives, those most highly regarded are those based on the influence of external factors.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

153. A physician who offers psychotherapy is called a:

 

a. 

psychiatrist.

 

b. 

clinical psychologist.

 

c. 

psychodiagnostician.

 

d. 

psychoanalyst.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

154. After medical school, a psychiatrist receives three to four years of training in the treatment of abnormal functioning; this training is called a(n):

 

a. 

residency.

 

b. 

internship.

 

c. 

practicum.

 

d. 

community mental health tour.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

155. One major difference between psychiatrists and clinical psychologists is that psychiatrists:

 

a. 

went to medical school.

 

b. 

must work in a medical setting.

 

c. 

are allowed to practice psychotherapy.

 

d. 

have more training in mental illness.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

156. Which statement is TRUE about the participation of women in the mental health professions?

 

a. 

There are more female psychiatrists than female counselors.

 

b. 

Women, as a group, prefer working in clinical settings.

 

c. 

The profession with the highest percentage of women is social work.

 

d. 

Female psychologists earn more than male psychologists.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

157. The specialty that presently has the largest number of practitioners is:

 

a. 

psychiatry.

 

b. 

social work.

 

c. 

psychology.

 

d. 

counseling.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

158. The specialty that is the oldest and best-paid, and has the fewest practitioners, is:

 

a. 

psychiatry.

 

b. 

social work.

 

c. 

psychology.

 

d. 

counseling.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

159. A person who works in a mental hospital analyzing various treatment protocols to see how multicultural factors impact success rates is MOST likely to be a:

 

a. 

clinical researcher.

 

b. 

clinical psychologist.

 

c. 

psychiatrist.

 

d. 

psychiatric social worker.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

160. Which statement BEST describes the effect of technology on mental health?

 

a. 

There is widespread consensus that technology causes deviant and dysfunctional behavior.

 

b. 

Technology has eroded society’s sense of community and people’s desire to engage with others.

 

c. 

There is no research-based evidence to support any connect between technology and mental health.

 

d. 

Technology provides new triggers for abnormal behaviors.

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

161. Research indicates that, on average, social media users are particularly likely to:

 

a. 

be mistrustful of others.

 

b. 

struggle with feelings of anger.

 

c. 

maintain close relationships.

 

d. 

be able to resist peer pressure.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

162. Research suggests that one negative effect of adolescents using social media sites is that these sites may:

 

a. 

increase peer pressure.

 

b. 

encourage improper language skills.

 

c. 

expose children to negative news stories.

 

d. 

reward people for underperforming in school.

 

ANSWER:  

a

 

163. The use of various technologies to deliver mental health services without the therapist being physically present is called:

 

a. 

managed care.

 

b. 

telemental health.

 

c. 

self-help, or group help.

 

d. 

community mental health.

 

ANSWER:  

b

 

164. Some mental health professionals are concerned about the increased availability of mental health information online. Which is NOT a reason for their concern?

 

a. 

Not all of the information online is factual.

 

b. 

Some sites promote unhealthy behaviors.

 

c. 

These professionals are losing money as people turn to self-care.

 

d. 

Numerous sites actively guide people away from seeking medical help.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

165. Someone who studies the history of the field of abnormal psychology MOST likely would compare our current understanding of abnormal behavior to a book that:

 

a. 

hasn’t been written yet.

 

b. 

has received a title but no text.

 

c. 

is in the process of being written.

 

d. 

is completed and needs only to be read to be understood.

 

ANSWER:  

c

 

 

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